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Dayton, PK, Currie V, Gerrodette T, Keller BD, Rosenthal R, Ventresca D.  1984.  Patch dynamics and stability of some California kelp communities. Ecological Monographs. 54:253-289.   10.2307/1942498   AbstractWebsite
Dayton, PK, Carleton JH, Mackley AG, Sammarco PW.  1989.  Patterns of settlement, survival and growth of oysters across the Great Barrier Reef. Marine Ecology-Progress Series. 54:75-90.   10.3354/meps054075   AbstractWebsite

Settlement plates of coral rock were moored on the Central Great Barrier Reef in order to evaluate the distribution of competent bivalve larvae and post-settlement growth and survivorship of oysters in different regions. Oysters were chosen because they dominate plates. The regions and sites were outer reef (Myrmidon), central reef (John Brewer), inner reef (Pandora) and an inshore non-reef habitat (Bowling Green Bay). Cross-shelf differences were studied by transferring plates from John Brewer Reef to the other sites with the return of some plates to John Brewer to control transfer effects. Cross-reef and fish predation effects were studied by transferring caged and uncaged plates to the fore reef, reef flat and back reef at John Brewer. Transfer to the back reef also evaluated the effect of Acropora colonies as relative refugia from fish predation and sand flats as an area relatively free of the invertebrate predators associated with coral rubble. There were clear regional settlement differences. Myrmidon Reef had lowest densities (6 2 ind 500cn1-'), high species richness (l? of 24 species identified in the project), and low equitabllity dominated by Ostrea foliurn. John Brewer (l6 species) had high densities (> 100 ind. 500cm-~) and hlgh specles equitability. Pandora Reef had the most species (20) and the highest densities because of a massive settlement of Pinctada maxima, most of which fell off the plates after recovery. Bowling Green Bay had low density (- 16 ind. 500cn1-~) and only 13 species, Ostrea angasi being a strong dominant. Average bivalve sizes increased from the outer to the inner reef. The cross-shelf transplant experiments showed strong trends in the growth rate with Myrmidon having the slowest and John Brewer and Pandora having the fastest growth. Growth rates of Plnctada and Ostrea spp. and Crassostrea commercialis differed significantly across the shelf. Ostrea spp. were largest at John Brewer, while Pinctada spp. and most Crassostrea spp. were largest at Pandora. At Bowling Green Bay oysters were smaller than at Pandora. Survivorship of Crassostrea spp. was about the same in all areas, but Pinctada and Ostrea spp. had significantly higher mortality at Bowling Green Bay and Pandora. In the cross-reef experiment immediate fish predation was highest on plates set in sand and lowest on plates under an Acropora thicket and there was much less fish predation at the reef flat and back reef sites. Oysters suffered very large mortalities from predation by invertebrates, especially gastropods, at all sites, but this was reduced for plates over sand substrata.

Barry, JP, Dayton PK.  1991.  Physical heterogeneity and the organization of marine communities. Ecological heterogeneity. ( Kolasa J, Pickett ST, Allen TFH, Eds.).:269-320., New York: Springer-Verlag Abstract
Dayton, PK.  1990.  Polar benthos. Polar oceanography. 2( Smith WO, Ed.).:631-685., San Diego: Academic Press AbstractWebsite
Dayton, PK, Mordida BJ, Bacon F.  1994.  Polar marine communities. American Zoologist. 34:90-99. AbstractWebsite

This paper offers a sweeping but very superficial review of the marine biology of polar seas. The marine systems in the Arctic and Antarctic have in common polar positions and cold temperatures, otherwise they are strikingly different. The Arctic has broad shallow continental shelves with seasonally fluctuating physical conditions and a massive fresh water impact in the northern coastal zones. However, it has a low seasonality of pack ice and little vertical mixing. In contrast, the Antarctic has over twice the oceanic surface area, deep narrow shelves, and, except for ice cover, a relatively stable physical environment with very little terrestrial input. The Antarctic has great pack ice seasonality and much vertical mixing. Primary productivity in the polar areas tends to be strongly pulsed with the zooplankton lagging behind; however there are many exceptions to such generalizations. Most recent research has focused on specific patterns and processes resulting in biological hot spots such as predictable leads in the ice, polynyas, oceanographic fronts, areas of intense mixing, and the marginal ice zone. This review attempts to weave these recent oceanographic studies into the geological history of each habitat in an effort to develop a holistic understanding of the biological processes.

Dayton, PK, Rosenthal RJ, Mahen LC, Antezana T.  1977.  Population structure and foraging biology of predaceous Chilean asteroid Meyenaster gelatinosus and escape biology of its prey. Marine Biology. 39:361-370.   10.1007/bf00391939   AbstractWebsite

Observations of the feeding biology of Meyenaster gelatinosus (Meyen) were made between Horcón and the southern Golfo de Penas, Chile. Of 811 sea stars examined, 436 were feeding on individuals representing 30 prey species. M. gelatinosus preys upon almost all the echinoderms and molluscs in its habitat, yet most of the prey species have extremely effective running escape behaviour in which they eventually release their attachment to the substratum, usually assuring that they will be swept to safety. Many of the molluscs exaggerate this by dorsoventral flattening of their mantles, so that they glide even farther. The echinoid Loxechinus albus has a very effective pedicillariae defense. Even at a distance, prey species usually discern foraging M. gelatinosus from non-foraging individuals, and on several occasions were observed touching M. gelatinosus which were eating conspecifics. Comparisons of the sizes of individual M. gelatinosus and their L. albus prey items showed no correlation; none of the prey species except possibly Concholepas choncholepas and M. gelatinosus itself has a refuge in size from attacking M. gelatinosus. The density of M. gelatinosus in 3 of 4 widely separated study areas where such data were collected was 0.04/m2. The mean radius of M. gelatinosus ranged from 150 to 210 mm in five study areas.

Tegner, MJ, Dayton PK.  1981.  Population structure, recruitment and mortality of two sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus franciscanus and S. purpuratus) in a kelp forest. Marine Ecology-Progress Series. 5:255-268.   10.3354/meps005255   AbstractWebsite

The red sea urchin Strongylocentrotus franciscanus and the purple sea urchin S. pur- puratus are important members of southern California kelp bed communities. We investigated their population structures in terms of patterns of recruitment and mortality at 3 sites in the Point Loma kelp forest near San Diego, California, USA. Recruitment was annual and substantial at all sites. Several predators consume adult S. purpuratus but only the spiny lobster Panulirus interruptus and the California sheephead fish Semicossyphus pulcher (a large labrld) prey on large S. franciscanus. Urchin test collections, small scale urchin distribution patterns and grazing mortahty of the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera suggest that lobsters and sheephead, both of which are harvested, control urchin populations. In the presence of these predators, the size-frequency distributions of S. franciscanus populations are bimodal, apparently because juveniles (up to 40 mm) are protected by the spine canopies of adults, urchins of intermediate size (50-80 mm) are very vulnerable to predators and large adults (> 90 mm) attain a partial refuge in size. The population structure of S. purpuratus is unimodal, evidently because this species is less dependent on the spine canopy association and its short spines and smaller adult test dimensions do not allow it a refuge in size from predation.

Gerrodette, T, Dayton PK, Macinko S, Fogarty MJ.  2002.  Precautionary management of marine fisheries: Moving beyond burden of proof. Bulletin of Marine Science. 70:657-668. AbstractWebsite

A more precautionary approach to marine fishery management is much needed, but a central issue is how decisions are made when, as is usual, uncertainties are large. Reversing the burden of proof (showing that a given fishing level is safe before allowing it) is a necessary but not sufficient condition for a precautionary approach. Several policy aspects of the burden of proof issue should be clarified: what the default decision will be; who bears the burden of demonstrating that a change from the default is justified; what metric is used to decide on a change; and what rate of incorrect changes from the default is tolerable. Fishery decision making would benefit from more specificity about management goals, preagreement on how data will be used in reaching decisions, and an explicit linking of fishing levels to the degree of certainty of fish stock condition. Finally, we argue that a truly precautionary approach requires a broader philosophical outlook than seeing the oceans as simply providing exploitable resources. Management should aim to maintain all marine species as functioning components of their ecosystems and to permit a proposed activity only if it can be demonstrated not to have an adverse effect.

Sala, E, Dayton PK.  2011.  Predicting strong community impacts using experimental estimates of per capita interaction strength: benthic herbivores and giant kelp recruitment. Marine Ecology-an Evolutionary Perspective. 32:300-312.   10.1111/j.1439-0485.2011.00471.x   AbstractWebsite

The estimation of the strength of the interaction between species is key for understanding the organization of ecological communities. Although experimental and observational studies have estimated per capita interaction strength for individual consumers, no previous study has used such estimates for predicting the impact of a community of consumers on their prey in the field. Here we evaluate experimental estimates of per capita interaction strength and impact of consumers on prey by comparing our impact predictions with real-time series of prey abundance. We conducted aquarium experiments to estimate the effects of seven herbivore species on survival of early life stages (microscopic sporophytes) of the giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera. We also estimated the impact of a community of herbivores on a cohort of kelp sporophytes using time series (1983-2000) of herbivore abundance in the Point Loma, San Diego (California), kelp forest. The underlying assumption was that maximum herbivore impact on microscopic recruits is realized only after a disturbance removes the giant kelp plants and thus releases the recruits. Our model was successful in predicting the prevention of giant kelp recruitment, which occurred when the abundance of weak interactors increased above a threshold. These results indicate that experimental estimates of maximum per capita interaction strength can be used to predict strong consumer impacts.

Mangel, M, Talbot LM, Meffe GK, Agardy MT, Alverson DL, Barlow J, Botkin DB, Budowski G, Clark T, Cooke J, Crozier RH, Dayton PK, Elder DL, Fowler CW, Funtowicz S, Giske J, Hofman RJ, Holt SJ, Kellert SR, Kimball LA, Ludwig D, Magnusson K, Malayang BS, Mann C, Norse EA, Northridge SP, Perrin WF, Perrings C, Peterman RM, Rabb GB, Regier HA, Reynolds JE, Sherman K, Sissenwine MP, Smith TD, Starfield A, Taylor RJ, Tillman MF, Toft C, Twiss JR, Wilen J, Young TP.  1996.  Principles for the conservation of wild living resources. Ecological Applications. 6:338-362.   10.2307/2269369   AbstractWebsite

We describe broadly applicable principles for the conservation of wild living resources and mechanisms for their implementation. These principles were engendered from three starting points. First, a set of principles for the conservation of wild living resources (Holt and Talbot 1978) required reexamination and updating. Second, those principles lacked mechanisms for implementation and consequently were not as effective as they might have been. Third, all conservation problems have scientific, economic, and social aspects, and although the mix may vary from problem to problem, all three aspects must be included in problem solving. We illustrate the derivation of, and amplify the meaning of, the principles, and discuss mechanisms for their implementation. The principles are: Principle I. Maintenance of healthy populations of wild living resources in perpetuity is inconsistent with unlimited growth of human consumption of and demand for those resources. Principle II. The goal of conservation should be to secure present and future options by maintaining biological diversity at genetic, species, population, and ecosystem levels; as a general rule neither the resource nor other components of the ecosystem should be perturbed beyond natural boundaries of variation. Principle III. Assessment of the possible ecological and sociological effects of resource use should precede both proposed use and proposed restriction or expansion of ongoing use of a resource. Principle IV. Regulation of the use of living resources must be based on understanding the structure and dynamics of the ecosystem of which the resource is a part and must take into account the ecological and sociological influences that directly and indirectly affect resource use. Principle V. The full range of knowledge and skills from the natural and social sciences must be brought to bear on conservation problems. Principle VI. Effective conservation requires understanding and taking account of the motives, interests, and values of all users and stakeholders, but not by simply averaging their positions. Principle VII. Effective conservation requires communication that is interactive, reciprocal, and continuous. Mechanisms for implementation of the principles are discussed.

Dayton, PK, Oliver JS.  1977.  Processes organizing contrasting benthic communities of McMurdo Sound. Antarctic Journal of the United States. 12:20-21. AbstractWebsite
Dayton, PK.  1984.  Processes structuring some marine communities: are they general? Ecological communities: Conceptual issues and the evidence. ( Strong DR, Simberloff D, Abele LG, Thistle AB, Eds.).:xiii,613p.., Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press Abstract