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Dayton, PK, Sala E.  2001.  Natural History: the sense of wonder, creativity and progress in ecology. Scientia Marina. 65:199-206. AbstractWebsite

This essay addresses the question of blending natural history and ecological wisdom into the genuine creativity exemplified by Prof. Ramon Margalef. Many have observed that modem biology is a triumph of precision over accuracy, and that ecology has sought maturity by striving toward this model in which the precision value of the tools has supplanted important questions. In pursuing a model of hard science, ecology has struggled with Popperian approaches designed to create a thin patina of "real sciences" over the vast seas of uncertainty so admired by the naturalists. We start with a discussion of the importance of natural history in ecology and conservation, and the present state of natural history in academic ecology. We then discuss the respect for natural history in human cultures, and conclude that an infatuation with authority has obfuscated the important truths to be found in nature. We consider some general processes associated with creativity, and finally we ask how natural history influences creativity in ecology. We conclude that the soaring creativity exemplified by Ramon Margalef is based on a joyful almost spiritual understanding of natural history and the courage to avoid authority.

Tegner, MJ, Basch LV, Dayton PK.  1996.  Near extinction of an exploited marine invertebrate. Trends in Ecology & Evolution. 11:278-280.   10.1016/0169-5347(96)30029-3   AbstractWebsite
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Abrams, PA, Ainley DG, Blight LK, Dayton PK, Eastman JT, Jacquet JL.  2016.  Necessary elements of precautionary management: implications for the Antarctic toothfish. Fish and Fisheries. 17:1152-1174.   10.1111/faf.12162   AbstractWebsite

We review the precautionary approach to fisheries management, propose a framework that will allow a systematic assessment of insufficient precaution and provide an illustration using an Antarctic fishery. For a single-species fishery, our framework includes five attributes: (1) limit reference points that recognize gaps in our understanding of the dynamics of the species; (2) accurate measures of population size; (3) ability to detect population changes quickly enough to arrest unwanted declines; (4) adequate understanding of ecosystem dynamics to avoid adverse indirect effects; and (5) assessment of the first four elements by a sufficiently impartial group of scientists. We argue that one or more of these elements frequently fail to be present in the management of many fisheries. Structural uncertainties, which characterize almost all fisheries models, call for higher limit points than those commonly used. A detailed look into the five elements and associated uncertainties is presented for the fishery on the Antarctic toothfish in the Ross Sea (FAO/CCAMLR Area 88.1, 88.2), for which management was recently described as highly precautionary'. In spite of having features that make the Ross Sea fishery ideal for the application of the precautionary approach, gaps in our knowledge and failure to acknowledge these gaps mean that current regulation falls short of being sufficiently precautionary. We propose some possible remedies.

Robilliard, GA, Dayton PK.  1972.  A new species of platyctenean ctenophore, Lyrocteis flavopallidus sp. nov., from McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. Canadian Journal of Zoology. 50:47-&.   10.1139/z72-009   AbstractWebsite

Lyrocteis flavopallidus sp. nov., a large (up to 110 mm tall) platyctenean ctenophore from the Antarctic, is described on the basis of the external morphology. The pale straw-yellow color, lack of ridges and frills on the body and arms, presence of small papillae on the body, and geographical location are considered sufficient to distinguish L. flavopallidus from L. imperatoris Komai, 1941, the only other species in the genus. The systematic placement of L. flavopallidus is somewhat uncertain because neither the anatomy of the reproductive system nor the larval development is known; the species may represent a new genus and possibly a new family.Lyrocteis flavopallidus is sedentary and usually found atop sponges or other elevated surfaces. However, it is able to move at least 1 to 2 m per day possibly to attain a more advantageous feeding position. Food items are captured by the sticky tentacles and transferred to the mouth.

Murray, SN, Ambrose RF, Bohnsack JA, Botsford LW, Carr MH, Davis GE, Dayton PK, Gotshall D, Gunderson DR, Hixon MA, Lubchenco J, Mangel M, MacCall A, McArdle DA, Ogden JC, Roughgarden J, Starr RM, Tegner MJ, Yoklavich MM.  1999.  No-take reserve networks: Sustaining fishery populations and marine ecosystems. Fisheries. 24:11-25.   10.1577/1548-8446(1999)024<0011:nrn>2.0.co;2   AbstractWebsite

Improved management approaches are needed to reduce the rate at which humans are depleting exploited marine populations and degrading marine ecosystems. Networks of no-take marine reserves are promising management tools because of their potential to (1) protect coastal ecosystem structure and, functioning, (2) benefit exploited populations and fisheries, (3) improve scientific understanding of marine ecosystems, and (4) provide enriched opportunities for non-extractive human activities. By protecting marine ecosystems and their populations, no-take reserve networks can reduce risk by providing important insurance for fishery managers against overexploitation of individual populations. Replicated reserves also foster strong scientific testing of fishery and conservation management strategies. Reserve networks will require social acceptance, adequate enforcement, and effective scientific evaluation to be successful. Processes for reserve establishment should accommodate adaptive management so boundaries and regulations can be modified to enhance performance. However, even well-designed. reserve networks will require continued conservation efforts outside reserve boundaries to be effective. Establishing networks of no-take reserves is a process-oriented, precautionary management strategy that protects functional attributes of marine ecosystems. As an addition to fishery management practices and other conservation efforts, no-take reserve networks may improve the status of exploited populations while conserving marine resources for future generations.

Hines, AH, Whitlatch RB, Thrush SF, Hewitt JE, Cummings VJ, Dayton PK, Legendre P.  1997.  Nonlinear foraging response of a large marine predator to benthic prey: eagle ray pits and bivalves in a New Zealand sandflat. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 216:191-210.   10.1016/s0022-0981(97)00096-8   AbstractWebsite

The density-dependent foraging response of eagle rays (Myliobatis tenuicaudatus) to infaunal bivalves (Macomona lilliana) was measured in a New Zealand sandflat. Disturbance pits provided unequivocal indicators of ray feeding activity, and pits were counted on a plot (250 m x 500 m) which had prey density mapped in a 200 cell (25 m x 25 m) grid. Although foraging response increased significantly with prey density treated as a nominal (class, ANOVA-type) variable, treating bivalve density as a ratio scale (continuous, regression-type) variable provided more information about characteristics of the response. Eagle rays exhibited a nonlinear segmented response to prey density, in which ray foraging activity was low and independent of prey density at low Macomona densities, while foraging increased sharply above a threshold density of prey but did not reach satiation at the highest prey densities in our site. By counting ray pits repeatedly over a 31 day period, we showed that the levels and slope of the foraging response (no. of ray pits per 707 m(2) per 4 days) varied temporally during the season, but the nonlinear characteristic and the threshold of prey density were consistent. Correlation analysis showed that the distribution of bivalve prey and ray foraging was spatially constant during the season. Comparison of 3 estimators of prey density showed that a fitted polynomial density was the best predictor of ray foraging, and indicated that rays were responding to prey patches on a scale of 75-100 m. The temporal features of the response to prey density were incorporated into a nonlinear segmented model and integrated with respect to time for each cell of the study grid. The impact of ray foraging estimated from the integral indicated that only about 1.6% of the Macomona population was consumed and 5.0% of the total plot was disturbed by rays during one month of study. However, the nonlinearity of response indicated that foraging impacts were concentrated disproportionately on high density patches of prey, which suffered up to 4% mortality and 13% disturbance. Macomona gained a refuge from predation and disturbance at low density, which would stabilize prey populations and even out prey distribution. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science B.V.

Robilliard, GA, Dayton PK.  1969.  Notes on the biology of the Chaenichthyid fish Pagetopsis macropterus from McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. Antarctic Journal of the United States. 4:304-306. AbstractWebsite
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