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Castillo, PR, Macisaac C, Perry S, Veizer J.  2018.  Marine carbonates in the mantle source of oceanic basalts: Pb isotopic constraints. Scientific Reports. 8   10.1038/s41598-018-33178-4   AbstractWebsite

For almost fifty years, geochemists have been interpreting the clues from Pb isotopic ratios concerning mantle composition and evolution separately. The Pb isotopes of ocean island basalts (OIB) indicate that their mantle source is heterogeneous, most likely due to the presence of end-components derived from recycled crust and sediment. Some OIB have unusually high Pb-206/Pb-204 coming from one of the end-components with a long time-integrated high U-238/Pb-204 or mu (HIMU). Most OIB and many mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) also have high Pb-206/Pb-204, indicating a HIMU-like source. Moreover, measured Th-232/U-238 (kappa) for most MORB are lower than those deduced from their Pb-208/Pb-204 and Pb-206/Pb-204. Such high mu and low kappa features of oceanic basalts are inconsistent with the known geochemical behavior of U, Pb and Th and temporal evolution of the mantle; these have been respectively termed the 1st and 2nd Pb paradox. Here we show that subducted marine carbonates can be a source for HIMU and a solution to the Pb paradoxes. The results are consistent with the predictions of the marine carbonate recycling hypothesis that posits the Pb isotopes of oceanic basalts indicate a common origin and/or magma generation process.

Castillo, PR.  1996.  Origin and geodynamic implication of the Dupal isotopic anomaly in volcanic rocks from the Philippine island arcs. Geology. 24:271-274.   10.1130/0091-7613(1996)024<0271:oagiot>;2   AbstractWebsite

Newly acquired Sr, Nd, and Pb isotope data, combined with other recently available data in the literature, clearly show that Philippine are volcanic rocks do not have a true Dupal isotopic anomaly, Instead, most of the volcanic rocks must have come from a mantle source with a ''Dupal-like'' Indian Ocean- to enriched ocean-island-basalt composition. This mantle source is present beneath the Philippine Sea plate and the South China Sea plate on either side of the Philippine are systems, The isotopic signature of Philippine are volcanics is most probably inherited from the previous southern locations of the different geologic terranes that compose the modern Philippine island arcs, The new data also show that the isotopic signature of Philippine are volcanics, similar to volcanic rocks from other western Pacific island-arc-back-arc settings, is mainly a function of the mantle source and was only recently modified by a component from subducted sediments and crust.