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2018
Castillo, PR, Macisaac C, Perry S, Veizer J.  2018.  Marine carbonates in the mantle source of oceanic basalts: Pb isotopic constraints. Scientific Reports. 8   10.1038/s41598-018-33178-4   AbstractWebsite

For almost fifty years, geochemists have been interpreting the clues from Pb isotopic ratios concerning mantle composition and evolution separately. The Pb isotopes of ocean island basalts (OIB) indicate that their mantle source is heterogeneous, most likely due to the presence of end-components derived from recycled crust and sediment. Some OIB have unusually high Pb-206/Pb-204 coming from one of the end-components with a long time-integrated high U-238/Pb-204 or mu (HIMU). Most OIB and many mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) also have high Pb-206/Pb-204, indicating a HIMU-like source. Moreover, measured Th-232/U-238 (kappa) for most MORB are lower than those deduced from their Pb-208/Pb-204 and Pb-206/Pb-204. Such high mu and low kappa features of oceanic basalts are inconsistent with the known geochemical behavior of U, Pb and Th and temporal evolution of the mantle; these have been respectively termed the 1st and 2nd Pb paradox. Here we show that subducted marine carbonates can be a source for HIMU and a solution to the Pb paradoxes. The results are consistent with the predictions of the marine carbonate recycling hypothesis that posits the Pb isotopes of oceanic basalts indicate a common origin and/or magma generation process.

2016
Castillo, PR.  2016.  A proposed new approach and unified solution to old Pb paradoxes. Lithos. 252:32-40.   10.1016/j.lithos.2016.02.015   AbstractWebsite

One of the most remarkable features of many and, perhaps, all oceanic basalts is that their Pb isotopic ratios ((206)pb/(204)pb, Pb-207/Pb-204 and (208)pb/Pb-204) are too radiogenic to be coming from the undifferentiated mantle or bulk silicate Earth. This has created three major concerns in the behavior of U, Th and Pb in the Earth's mantle that have been termed the Pb paradoxes. These are the unexpectedly long time-integrated high U/Pb (1st paradox), long time-integrated low Th/U (2nd paradox) and constant Ce/Pb and Nb/U (3rd paradox) in the mantle sources of oceanic basalts. The origins of such unexpected ratios have been the object of intense studies that produced several highly significant, but generally individualized results during the last four decades. Detailed analysis of available data shows that the paradoxes are closely interrelated as they all pertain to the mantle and have many common characteristic features. Thus, the Pb paradoxes constitute a system of equations that must be solved all together as each solution must satisfy every equation in the system. For example, compositional data for the voluminous mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORE) show that the 1st and 2nd paradoxes exhibit a long time-integrated enrichment of U and the Th/U and Nb/Th ratios are also constant. A single solution to simultaneously explain the paradoxes in MORE is possible if recycled materials with variable enrichments in incompatible trace elements, particularly U and its daughter Pb* plus Nb, Ce, and Th are added to or mixed with the depleted upper mantle. Significantly, a similar binary mixing solution has been proposed for the Pb paradoxes in ocean island basalts. (c) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

2014
Yan, QS, Shi XF, Castillo PR.  2014.  The late Mesozoic-Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the South China Sea: A petrologic perspective. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences. 85:178-201.   10.1016/j.jseaes.2014.02.005   AbstractWebsite

This paper presents a review of available petrological, geochonological and geochemical data for late Mesozoic to Recent igneous rocks in the South China Sea (SCS) and adjacent regions and a discussion of their petrogeneses and tectonic implications. The integration of these data with available geophysical and other geologic information led to the following tectono-magmatic model for the evolution of the SCS region. The geochemical characteristics of late Mesozoic granitic rocks in the Pearl River Mouth Basin (PRMB), micro-blocks in the SCS, the offshore continental shelf and Dalat zone in southern Vietnam, and the Schwaner Mountains in West Kalimantan, Borneo indicate that these are mainly I-type granites plus a small amount of S-type granites in the PRMB. These granitoids were formed in a continental arc tectonic setting, consistent with the ideas proposed by Holloway (1982) and Taylor and Hayes (1980, 1983), that there existed an Andean-type volcanic arc during later Mesozoic era in the SCS region. The geochonological and geochemical characteristics of the volcanics indicate an early period of bimodal volcanism (60-43 Ma or 32 Ma) at the northern margin of the SCS, followed by a period of relatively passive style volcanism during Cenozoic seafloor spreading (37 or 30-16 Ma) within the SCS, and post-spreading volcanism (tholeiitic series at 17-8 Ma, followed by alkali series from 8 Ma to present) in the entire SCS region. The geodynamic setting of the earlier volcanics was an extensional regime, which resulted from the collision between India and Eurasian plates since the earliest Cenozoic, and that of the post-spreading volcanics may be related to mantle plume magmatism in Hainan Island. In addition, the nascent Hainan plume may have played a significant role in the extension along the northern margin and seafloor spreading in the SCS. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Liu, XJ, Xu JF, Castillo PR, Xiao WJ, Shi Y, Feng ZH, Guo L.  2014.  The Dupal isotopic anomaly in the southern Paleo-Asian Ocean: Nd-Pb isotope evidence from ophiolites in Northwest China. Lithos. 189:185-200.   10.1016/j.lithos.2013.08.020   AbstractWebsite

It has been suggested that the Dupal isotopic anomaly in the mantle can be traced in the Paleozoic ophiolites from the Neo- and Paleo-Tethyan Ocean (275-350 Ma). The Karamaili ophiolite (KO) and Dalabute ophiolite (DO) in the eastern and western corners, respectively, of the Junggar basin in NW China represent remnants of the relatively older (>350 Ma) Paleo-Asian Ocean (PAO) crust. Thus, these ophiolites can provide additional constraints on the long-term composition and evolution of the Paleozoic suboceanic mantle. We present new major-trace element and Sr, Nd and high-precision Pb isotope data for the basalts, gabbros and a plagioclase separate from the KO and DO. Our results indicate that the PAO crust indeed has a Dupal-like isotopic signature. In detail, all samples have relatively low epsilon(Nd(t)) and high Pb-208/Pb-204((t)) for given Pb-206/(204) Pb-(t) ratios (i.e., positive Delta 8/4 values), similar to the Dupal isotopic characteristics of Indian Ocean mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB). The trace element signature of DO mafic rocks is similar to that of normal- and enriched-MORB whereas that of the KO is transitional between MORB and arc basalt. Therefore, the DO mantle domain reflects the PAO asthenosphere and the KO domain additionally shows the influence of the subduction process. Geochemical modeling using Th/Nd as well as Nd and Pb isotopic ratios indicates that up to 2% subduction component had been added to a depleted Indian MORB-type mantle to produce the bulk of KO rocks. The subduction component in the KO rocks consisted of variable proportions of <= 1% partial melt of unradiogenic sediment similar to modern lzu-Bonin trench sediment and hydrous fluid dehydrated from the subducted altered oceanic crust. The Devonian asthenospheric mantle beneath the southern PAO is isotopically heterogeneous, but lends support to the idea that the Dupal isotopic anomaly existed prior to the opening of the Indian Ocean. Finally, plate tectonic reconstruction indicates that the anomaly was present in the Neo- and Paleo-Tethyan oceans in the southern hemisphere and in the southern part of PAO in the northern hemisphere during the late Paleozoic. C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

2010
Macpherson, CG, Chiang KK, Hall R, Nowell GM, Castillo PR, Thirlwall MF.  2010.  Plio-Pleistocene intra-plate magmatism from the southern Sulu Arc, Semporna peninsula, Sabah, Borneo: Implications for high-Nb basalt in subduction zones. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 190:25-38.   10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2009.11.004   AbstractWebsite

New analyses of major and trace element concentrations and Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic ratios are presented for Plio-Pleistocene basalts and basaltic andesites from the Semporna peninsula in Sabah, Borneo, at the southern end of the Sulu Arc. Depletion of high field strength elements (HFSE), which is characteristic of many subduction-related magmatic suites, is present in more evolved Semporna rocks but is associated with radiogenic Sr and Pb, and less radiogenic Nd isotopic ratios and results from contamination of mafic melt by, possibly ancient, crustal basement. The most mafic lavas from Semporna, and elsewhere in the Sulu Arc, display no HFSE depletion relative to other elements with similar compatibility. High-Nb basalt from Semporna formed when mantle resembling the source of Ocean Island Basalt (OIB) upwelled into lithospheric thin spots created during earlier subduction. This mantle did not experience enrichment by fluids or melt derived from subducted crust. The presence of similar lavas throughout the Sulu Arc and around the South China Sea suggests that the OIB-like component resides in the convecting upper mantle. Depletion of light rare earth elements, with respect to other incompatible elements, throughout the Sulu Arc could result from melt-mantle interaction during magma transport through the lithosphere. Such depletion is absent in suites from the South China Sea, where magma probably migrated along large, lithosphere-penetrating structures. Semporna high-Nb basalts are not associated with adakitic magmatism which is a frequent, but not ubiquitous, association in some active subduction zones. Both geochemical signatures are developed early in the history of a melt pulse, either in the source (high-Nb basalt) or during deep differentiation (adakite). Preservation of these distinctive geochemical signatures is favoured in settings that minimise (1) interaction with other, more copious melt types, and/or (2) subsequent differentiation in the shallow crust. Where found, the high-Nb basalt-adakite association is a result of transport through favourable lithospheric conditions and not due to any link between their mantle Sources. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

2007
Castillo, PR, Rigby SJ, Solidum RU.  2007.  Origin of high field strength element enrichment in volcanic arcs: Geochemical evidence from the Sulu Arc, southern Philippines. Lithos. 97:271-288.   10.1016/j.lithos.2006.12.012   AbstractWebsite

Lavas from the Sulu Arc, southern Philippines, exhibit an enrichment in high field strength elements (HFSE) that represents a departure from the typical volcanic are geochemical signature. It has been postulated that this relative enrichment arises from metasomatism of mantle wedge peridotites by melts derived from the subducting oceanic lithosphere, through formation of amphibole which subsequently breaks down and enriches the mantle source of parental arc magmas in HFSE. Divergent chemical and isotopic characteristics between Sulu Are HFSE-enriched lavas and the Sulu Sea crust being subducted-the presumed source of slab-derived melts-render it unlikely, however, that HFSE enrichment arises from the influence of such melts. New geochemical data suggest that the varying degrees of HFSE enrichment in Sulu Arc lavas are instead the result of variable amounts of mixing between enriched and depleted mantle end-components-the sources of South China Sea intraplate lavas and Sulu seafloor basalts, respectively-within a compositionally heterogeneous mantle wedge. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

1999
Castillo, PR, Janney PE, Solidum RU.  1999.  Petrology and geochemistry of Camiguin Island, southern Philippines: insights to the source of adakites and other lavas in a complex arc setting. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology. 134:33-51.   10.1007/s004100050467   AbstractWebsite

Camiguin is a small volcanic island located 12 km north of Mindanao Island in southern Philippines. The island consists of four volcanic centers which have erupted basaltic to rhyolitic calcalkaline lavas during the last similar to 400 ka. Major element, trace element and Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic data indicate that the volcanic centers have produced a single lava series from a common mantle source. Modeling results indicate that Camiguin lavas were produced by periodic injection of a parental magma into shallow magma chambers allowing assimilation and fractional crystallization (AFC) processes to take place. The chemical and isotopic composition of Camiguin lavas bears strong resemblance to the majority of lavas from the central Mindanao volcanic field confirming that Camiguin is an extension of the tectonically complex Central Mindanao Are (CMA). The most likely source of Camiguin and most CMA magmas is the mantle wedge metasomatized by fluids dehydrated from a subducted slab. Some Camiguin high-silica lavas are similar to high-silica lavas from Mindanao, which have been identified as "adakites" derived from direct melting of a subducted basaltic crust. More detailed comparison of Camiguin and Mindanao adakites with silicic slab-derived melts and magnesian andesites from the western Aleutians, southernmost Chile and Batan Island in northern Philippines indicates that the Mindanao adakites are not pure slab melts. Rather, the CMA adakites are similar to Camiguin high-silica lavas which are products of an AFC process and have negligible connection to melting of subducted basaltic crust.