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Zhang, JA, Gerstoft P, Bromirski PD.  2010.  Pelagic and coastal sources of P-wave microseisms: Generation under tropical cyclones. Geophysical Research Letters. 37   10.1029/2010gl044288   AbstractWebsite

Nonlinear wave-wave interactions generate double-frequency (DF) microseisms, which include both surface waves (mainly Rayleigh-type) and compressional (P) waves. Although it is unclear whether DF surface waves generated in deep oceans are observed on land, we show that beamforming of land-based seismic array data allows detection of DF P waves generated by ocean waves from Super Typhoon Ioke in both pelagic and coastal regions. Two distinct spectral bands associated with different P-wave source locations are observed. The short-period DF band (0.16-0.35 Hz) is dominated by P waves generated in the deep ocean by local wind seas under the storm. In contrast, P waves in the long-period DF band (0.1-0.15 Hz) are weaker and generated closer to the coast of Japan from swell interactions. The accurate identification of DF P-wave microseism source areas is useful to monitor ocean wave-wave interactions due to tropical cyclones and to image Earth structure using ambient seismic noise. Citation: Zhang, J., P. Gerstoft, and P. D. Bromirski (2010), Pelagic and coastal sources of P-wave microseisms: Generation under tropical cyclones, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L15301, doi: 10.1029/2010GL044288.