Publications

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1989
Ander, ME, Zumberge MA, Lautzenhiser T, Parker RL, Aiken CLV, Gorman MR, Nieto MM, Ferguson JF, McMechan GA.  1989.  A New Field Experiment in the Greenland Ice Cap to Test Newton Inverse Square Law. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 571:672-680.   10.1111/j.1749-6632.1989.tb50553.x   AbstractWebsite

Recent experimental evidence suggests that Newton’s law of gravity may not be precise. There are modern theories of quantum gravity that, in their attempts to unify gravity with other forces of nature, predict non-Newtonian gravitational forces that could have ranges on the order of 102-105 m. If they exist, these forces would be apparent as violations of Newton’s inverse square law. A geophysical experiment was carried out to search for possible finite-range, non-Newtonian gravity over depths of 213-1673 m in the glacial ice of the Greenland ice cap. The principal reason for this choice of experimental site is that a hole drilled through the ice cap already existed and the uniformity of the ice eliminates one of the major sources of uncertainty arising in the first of earlier namely, the heterogeneity of the rocks through which a mine shaft or drill hole passes. Our observations were made in the summer of 1987 at Dye 3, Greenland, in the 2033-m-deep borehole, which reached the basement rock.

Zumberge, MA.  1989.  Absolute gravity measurements. The Encyclopedia of solid earth geophysics. ( James DE, Ed.).:5-9., New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Abstract
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1988
Zumberge, MA, Wyatt FK, Yu DX, Hanada H.  1988.  Optical Fibers for Measurement of Earth Strain. Applied Optics. 27:4131-4138.   10.1364/AO.27.004131   AbstractWebsite

We report on laboratory experiments on single-mode optical fibers for use in measuring earth strain. We have monitored the long-term stability of 25-m long tensioned fibers and found their rates of fractional change in optical path lengths to be no more than 2 × 10-6/yr. The optical temperature coefficients for several fibers whose physical lengths were held constant were found to be within 4% of 1.17 × 10-5 apparent strain/°C. The strain sensitivity (the ratio of observed optical path change to physical path change) was determined to be within 1% of 1.16 for all the fibers tested. Initial field tests indicate that fibers are suitable for earth strain measurements of moderate precision.

Johnson, HO, Wyatt F, Zumberge MA.  1988.  Stabilized Laser for Long Base-Line Interferometry. Applied Optics. 27:445-446.   10.1364/AO.27.000445   AbstractWebsite
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1987
Chave, AD, Zumberge MA, Ander ME, Hildebrand JA, Spiess FN.  1987.  Polar Ice Test of the Scale Dependence of G. Nature. 326:250-251.   10.1038/326250b0   AbstractWebsite
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Arnautov, G, Boulanger Y, Cannizzo L, Cerutti G, Faller J, Feng Y-Y, Groten E, Guo Y, Hollander W, Huang D-L, Kalish E, Marson I, Niebauer T, Sakuma A, Sasagawa G, Schleglov S, Stus Y, Tarasiuk W, Ahang G-Y, Zhou J-H, Zumberge M.  1987.  Results of the Second International Comparison of Absolute Gravimeters in Sevres 1985. Bull. D'Information. 59 Abstract
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1986
Zumberge, MA, Sasagawa G, Kappus M.  1986.  Absolute Gravity Measurements in California. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth and Planets. 91:9135-9144.   10.1029/JB091iB09p09135   AbstractWebsite

We have constructed an absolute gravity meter that determines the local gravitational acceleration by timing a freely falling mass with a laser interferometer. The instrument has made measurements at 11 sites in California, four in Nevada, and one in France. The uncertainty in the results is typically 10μGal (1 Gal ≡ 1 cm/s2; 1 μGal = 10−6 Gal = 10−8 m/s2). Repeated measurements have been made at several of the sites; only one shows a substantial change in gravity.

1985
Zumberge, MA.  1985.  Frequency Stability of a Zeeman-Stabilized Laser. Applied Optics. 24:1902-1904.   10.1364/AO.24.001902   AbstractWebsite

The frequency of a commercial hard-sealed He-Ne laser has been stabilized to the center of the discharge gain profile using the mode splitting caused by an axial magnetic field. The absolute frequency has been measured repeatedly during intermittent operation over 20 months. Its drift over most of this period has been 2.6 ± 0.7 MHz/yr. The lock point has been found to depend slightly on the laser tube’s temperature.

1984
Zumberge, M, Faller JE, Rinker RL.  1984.  A new portable, absolute gravimeter. Precision Measurements and Fundamental Constants II. ( Taylor BN, Philips WD, Eds.).:405-409. Abstract
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1983
Zumberge, MA, Faller JE, Gschwind J.  1983.  Results from an Absolute Gravity Survey in the United-States. Journal of Geophysical Research. 88:7495-7502.   10.1029/JB088iB09p07495   AbstractWebsite

Using the recently completed JILA absolute gravity meter, we made an absolute gravity survey which covered 12 sites in the United States. Over a period of 8 weeks, the instrument was driven a total distance of nearly 20,000 km to sites in California, New Mexico, Colorado, Wyoming, Maryland, and Massachusetts. The time spent in carrying out a measurement at a single location was typically 1 day. A measurement accuracy of around 1×10−7 m/s2 (10 μGal) is believed to have been obtained at each of the sites.

1982
Zumberge, MA, Rinker RL, Faller JE.  1982.  A Portable Apparatus for Absolute Measurements of the Earths Gravity. Metrologia. 18:145-152.   10.1088/0026-1394/18/3/006   AbstractWebsite

We have developed a new and portable apparatus for making absolute measurements of the acceleration due to the Earth's gravity. We use the method of free fall, and interferometrically determine the acceleration of a freely falling cube corner. In the design and development of this instrument, particular attention was paid to those aspects which would affect its performance in the field. The resulting instrument, we believe, provides a viable new tool for the study of tectonic motions. The system is very small; it can be transported in a small van and requires only two hours for assembly. A high rate of data acquisition is available; if necessary, a single measurement can be made every two seconds. Further, we have made a concerted effort to detect and (we hope) eliminate systematic errors. The results of extensive tests indicate that the achievable accuracy for g is about six parts in 109. This instrument therefore provides a sensitivity to vertical motions (e.g., of the Earth's crust) as small as 2 cm.

1979
Faller, JE, Rinker RL, Zumberge MA.  1979.  Plans for the Development of a Portable Absolute Gravimeter with a Few Parts in 109 Accuracy. Tectonophysics. 52:107-116.   10.1016/0040-1951(79)90212-9   AbstractWebsite

Successful development of a few parts in 109 portable g apparatus (which corresponds to a height sensitivity of about 1 cm) would have an impact on large areas of geodynamics as well as having possible application to earthquake prediction. Furthermore, the use of such an instrument in combination with classical leveling or extraterrestrially determined height data would yield information on internal mass motions. The plans for the development of such an instrument at JILA using the method of free fall will be given. The proposed interferometric method uses one element of an optical interferometer as the dropped object. Recent work has resulted in substantial progress towards the development of a new type of long-period (T > 60 sec) suspension for isolating the reference mirror (corner cube) in the interferometer. Improvements here over the isolation methods previously available, together with state-of-the-art timing and interferometric techniques, are expected to make it possible to achieve a few parts in 109 accuracy with a field-type instrument.

Faller, JE, Rinker RL, Zumberge M.  1979.  Progress on the development of a portable absolute gravimeter. Bulletin d'Information. 44 Abstract
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1978
Faller, JE, Rinker RL, Zumberge M.  1978.  Plans for the development of a portable absolute gravimeter: A tool for studying non-tidal variations in gravity. Boll. Geofis.Teor. Appl. 20:355-362. Abstract
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1976
Thun, R, Akerlof CW, Alley P, Koltick D, Loveless RL, Meyer DI, Zumberge M, Bintinger D, Lundy RA, Yovanovitch DD, Ditzler WR, Finley DA, Loeffler FJ, Shibata EI, Stanfield KC.  1976.  Description of Drift Chambers Used in a Fermilab Experiment. Nuclear Instruments & Methods. 138:437-444.   10.1016/0029-554x(76)90308-6   AbstractWebsite

We give a detailed description of the drift chamber system used in a charm search at Fermilab. All important aspects of design and performance are discussed.