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2018
Randelhoff, A, Reigstad M, Chierici M, Sundfjord A, Ivanov V, Cape M, Vernet M, Tremblay JE, Bratbak G, Kristiansen S.  2018.  Seasonality of the physical and biogeochemical hydrography in the inflow to the Arctic Ocean through Fram Strait. Frontiers in Marine Science. 5   10.3389/fmars.2018.00224   AbstractWebsite

Eastern Fram Strait and the shelf slope region north of Svalbard is dominated by the advection of warm, salty and nutrient-rich Atlantic Water (AW). This oceanic heat contributes to keeping the area relatively free of ice. The last years have seen a dramatic decrease in regional sea ice extent, which is expected to drive large increases in pelagic primary production and thereby changes in marine ecology and nutrient cycling. In a concerted effort, we conducted five cruises to the area in winter, spring, summer and fall of 2014, in order to understand the physical and biogeochemical controls of carbon cycling, for the first time from a year-round point of view. We document (1) the offshore location of the wintertime front between salty AW and fresher Surface Water in the ocean surface, (2) thermal convection of Atlantic Water over the shelf slope, likely enhancing vertical nutrient fluxes, and (3) the importance of ice melt derived upper ocean stratification for the spring bloom timing. Our findings strongly confirm the hypothesis that this "Atlantification," as it has been called, of the shelf slope area north of Svalbard resulting from the advection of AW alleviates both nutrient and light limitations at the same time, leading to increased pelagic primary productivity in this region.

2016
Svensen, C, Vernet M.  2016.  Production of dissolved organic carbon by Oithona nana (Copepoda: Cyclopoida) grazing on two species of dinoflagellates. Marine Biology. 163   10.1007/s00227-016-3005-9   AbstractWebsite

Production of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) by sloppy feeding copepods may represent an important source of DOC in marine food webs. By using the C-14-labeling technique, we quantify for the first time the production of DOC by the small cyclopoid copepod Oithona nana on two species of dinoflagellates, Oxyrrhis marina and Karlodinium sp. We found significant production of DOC when O. nana grazed on O. marina, corresponding to 6-15 % of the carbon ingested. When grazing the smaller Karlodinium sp., no DOC was produced. In additional experiments, we compared O. nana feeding rates on the dinoflagellate species Prorocentrum micans, Akashiwo sanguinea, Karlodinium sp. and O. marina. Clearance rates varied with prey size, with highest and lowest clearance rates on O. marina and Karlodinium sp., respectively. Our study indicates that even though O. nana feed efficiently on dinoflagellates, some of the carbon cleared can be lost as DOC. However, the DOC production by O. nana was lower than rates reported for calanoid copepods. We hypothesize that this is a result of the ambush feeding behavior of O. nana, which is considered a more specialized feeding mode than, for instance, suspension feeding. Due to high abundances and global distribution, we suggest that Oithona can represent an important source of DOC in marine ecosystems. This would particularly be the case during autumn and winter, where they may contribute to maintaining the microbial loop activities during periods of low primary production.

1999
Gabric, AJ, Matrai PA, Vernet M.  1999.  Modelling the production and cycling of dimethylsulphide during the vernal bloom in the Barents Sea. Tellus Series B-Chemical and Physical Meteorology. 51:919-937.   10.1034/j.1600-0889.1999.t01-4-00005.x   AbstractWebsite

Recent field work suggests an important role for the Arctic Ocean in the global budget of dimethylsulphide (DMS), a climatically active volatile sulphur compound. Here, we have used an existing DMS production model and local field data to examine the temporal dynamics of the DMS cycle during the spring bloom in the Arctic shelf of the Barents Sea. The timing and duration of the spring phytoplankton bloom has been shown to be a key determinant of the flux of DMS to the atmosphere. Particular oceanic conditions due to the retreating ice-edge (e.g., a shallow mixed layer) can have an important effect on the timing of the phytoplankton bloom and thus the efflux of DMS in this region. Model simulations support the view that algal taxonomy is not the most important factor determining DMS production in these waters. The mean vernal DMS flux is predicted to be 0.063 mg S m(-2) d(-1) which is in general agreement with previous summer season averages in the Arctic.