pH sensing

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Tresguerres, M, Salmeron C.  2018.  Molecular, enzymatic, and cellular characterization of soluble adenylyl cyclase from aquatic animals. Methods in Enzymology . 605:525-549.   10.1016/bs.mie.2018.02.022   Abstract

The enzyme soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is the most recently identified source of the messenger molecule cyclic adenosine monophosphate. sAC is evolutionarily conserved from cyanobacteria to human, is directly stimulated by [Formula: see text] ions, and can act as a sensor of environmental and metabolic CO2, pH, and [Formula: see text] levels. sAC genes tend to have multiple alternative promoters, undergo extensive alternative splicing, be translated into low mRNA levels, and the numerous sAC protein isoforms may be present in various subcellular localizations. In aquatic organisms, sAC has been shown to mediate various functions including intracellular pH regulation in coral, blood acid/base regulation in shark, heart beat rate in hagfish, and NaCl absorption in fish intestine. Furthermore, sAC is present in multiple other species and tissues, and sAC protein and enzymatic activity have been reported in the cytoplasm, the nucleus, and other subcellular compartments, suggesting even more diverse physiological roles. Although the methods and experimental tools used to study sAC are conventional, the complexity of sAC genes and proteins requires special considerations that are discussed in this chapter.