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Steinberg, DK, Landry MR.  2017.  Zooplankton and the ocean carbon cycle. Annual Review of Marine Sciences, Vol 9. 9:413-444., Palo Alto: Annual Reviews   10.1146/annurev-marine-010814-015924   Abstract

Marine zooplankton comprise a phylogenetically and functionally diverse assemblage of protistan and metazoan consumers that occupy multiple trophic levels in pelagic food webs. Within this complex network, carbon flows via alternative zooplankton pathways drive temporal and spatial variability in production-grazing coupling, nutrient cycling, export, and transfer efficiency to higher trophic levels. We explore current knowledge of the processing of zooplankton food ingestion by absorption, egestion, respiration, excretion, and growth (production) processes. On a global scale, carbon fluxes are reasonably constrained by the grazing impact of microzooplankton and the respiratory requirements of mesozooplankton but are sensitive to uncertainties in trophic structure. The relative importance, combined magnitude, and efficiency of export mechanisms (mucous feeding webs, fecal pellets, molts, carcasses, and vertical migrations) likewise reflect regional variability in community structure. Climate change is expected to broadly alter carbon cycling by zooplankton and to have direct impacts on key species.

Bathmann, U, Bundy MH, Clarke ME, Cowles TJ, Daly K, Dam HG, Dekshenieks MM, Donaghay PL, Gibson DM, Gifford DJ, Hansen BW, Hartline DK, Head EJH, Hofmann EE, Hopcroft RR, Jahnke RA, Jonasdottir SH, Kiorboe T, Kleppel GS, Klinck JM, Kremer PM, Landry MR, Lee RF, Lenz PH, Madin LP, Manahan DT, Mazzocchi MG, McGillicuddy DJ, Miller CB, Nelson JR, Osborn TR, Paffenhofer GA, Pieper RE, Prusova I, Roman MR, Schiel S, Seim HE, Smith SL, Torres JJ, Verity PG, Wakeham SG, Wishner KF, Marine Zooplankton C.  2001.  Future marine zooplankton research - a perspective - Marine Zooplankton Colloquium 2. Marine Ecology-Progress Series. 222:297-308.   10.3354/meps222297   AbstractWebsite

During the Second Marine Zooplankton Colloquium (MZC2) 3 issues were added to those developed 11 yr ago during the First Marine Zooplankton Colloquium (MZC1). First, we focused on hot spots, i.e., locations where zooplankton occur in higher than regular abundance and/or operate at higher rates, We should be able to determine the processes leading to such aggregations and rates, and quantify their persistence. Second, information on the level of individual species, even of highly abundant ones, is limited, Concerted efforts should be undertaken with highly abundant to dominant species or genera (e.g., Oithona spp,, Calanus spp., Oikopleura spp., Euphausia superba) to determine what governs their abundance and its variability. Third, zooplankton clearly influence biogeochemical cycling in the ocean, but our knowledge of the underlying processes remains fragmentary. Therefore a thorough assessment of variables that still need to be quantified is required to obtain an understanding of zooplankton contributions to biogeochemical cycling. Combining studies on the 7 issues from MZC1 with the 3 from MZC2 should eventually lead to a comprehensive understanding of (1) the mechanisms governing the abundance and existence of dominant zooplankton taxa, and (2) the control of biodiversity and biocomplexity, for example, in the tropical ocean where diversity is high. These recommendations come from an assemblage of chemical, physical and biological oceanographers with experience in major interdisciplinary studies, including modeling. These recommendations are intended to stimulate efforts within the oceanographic community to facilitate the development of predictive capabilities for major biological processes in the ocean.