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Baines, SB, Chen X, Twining BS, Fisher NS, Landry MR.  2016.  Factors affecting Fe and Zn contents of mesozooplankton from the Costa Rica Dome. Journal of Plankton Research. 38:331-347.   10.1093/plankt/fbv098   AbstractWebsite

Mineral limitation of mesozooplankton production is possible in waters with low trace metal availability. As a step toward estimating mesozooplankton Fe and Zn requirements under such conditions, we measured tissue concentrations of major and trace nutrient elements within size-fractioned zooplankton samples collected in and around the Costa Rica Upwelling Dome, a region where phytoplankton growth may be co-limited by Zn and Fe. The geometric mean C, N, P contents were 27, 5.6 and 0.21 mmol gdw(-1), respectively. The values for Fe and Zn were 1230 and 498 nmol gdw(-1), respectively, which are low compared with previous measurements. Migrant zooplankton caused C and P contents of the 2-5 mm fraction to increase at night relative to the day while the Fe and Zn contents decreased. Fe content increased with size while Zn content decreased with size. Fe content was strongly correlated to concentrations of two lithogenic tracers, Al and Ti. We estimate minimum Fe: C ratios in large migrant and resident mixed layer zooplankton to be 15 and 60 mu mol mol(-1), respectively. The ratio of Zn: C ranged from 11 mu mol mol(-1) for the 0.2-0.5 mm size fraction to 33 mu mol mol(-1) for the 2-5 mm size fraction.

Decima, M, Landry MR, Stukel MR, Lopez-Lopez L, Krause JW.  2016.  Mesozooplankton biomass and grazing in the Costa Rica Dome: amplifying variability through the plankton food web. Journal of Plankton Research. 38:317-330.   10.1093/plankt/fbv091   AbstractWebsite

We investigated standing stocks and grazing rates of mesozooplankton assemblages in the Costa Rica Dome (CRD), an open-ocean upwelling ecosystem in the eastern tropical Pacific. While phytoplankton biomass in the CRD is dominated by picophytoplankton (<2-mu m cells) with especially high concentrations of Synechococcus spp., we found high mesozooplankton biomass (similar to 5 g dry weight m(-2)) and grazing impact (12-50% integrated water column chlorophyll a), indicative of efficient food web transfer from primary producers to higher levels. In contrast to the relative uniformity in water-column chlorophyll a and mesozooplankton biomass, variability in herbivory was substantial, with lower rates in the central dome region and higher rates in areas offset from the dome center. While grazing rates were unrelated to total phytoplankton, correlations with cyanobacteria (negative) and biogenic SiO2 production (positive) suggest that partitioning of primary production among phytoplankton sizes contributes to the variability observed in mesozooplankton metrics. We propose that advection of upwelled waters away from the dome center is accompanied by changes in mesozooplankton composition and grazing rates, reflecting small changes within the primary producers. Small changes within the phytoplankton community resulting in large changes in the mesozooplankton suggest that the variability in lower trophic level dynamics was effectively amplified through the food web.