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Martinez-Fuentes, LM, Gaxiola-Castro G, Gomez-Ocampo E, Kahru M.  2016.  Effects of interannual events (1997-2012) on the hydrography and phytoplankton biomass of Sebastian Vizcaino Bay. Ciencias Marinas. 42:81-97.   10.7773/cm.v42i2.2626   AbstractWebsite

Sebastian Vizcaino Bay (Baja California Peninsula, Mexico) presents hydrographic conditions and phytoplankton biomass corresponding to a temperate/subtropical transition zone affected by large-scale tropical and subtropical events and those events originating in the subpolar Pacific region. Conditions in the first 50 m depth of the bay are mostly temperate (average temperature: 15.5 degrees C; average salinity: 33.6) and mesotrophic (phytoplankton biomass: >1 mg m(-3)). During spring and summer the bay is heavily influenced by the water transported by the California Current and the coastal upwelling generated off Punta Canoas. During the rest of the year the hydrography and phytoplankton biomass are mostly associated with subtropical conditions. The ENSO events arising in the period 1997-2012 affected the bay's water column. The extreme 1997-1998 El Nino generated increases of similar to 8 degrees C in temperature and similar to 0.8 in salinity. Local dynamic processes decreased the effects of moderate and weak El Nino events on phytoplankton biomass, with possible changes in the plankton functional groups. Due to the mostly temperate environment of the bay, the moderate 1998-2000 and 2010-2011 La Nina events did not generate a substantial change in the hydrography and phytoplankton biomass. However, the abundant subarctic water inflow in the period 2002-2006 abruptly decreased salinity and led to increased stratification of the water column and a reduction in phytoplankton chlorophyll.

Lluch-Cota, SE, Aragon-Noriega EA, Arreguin-Sanchez F, Aurioles-Gamboa D, Bautista-Romero JJ, Brusca RC, Cervantes-Duarte R, Cortes-Altamirano R, Del-Monte-Luna P, Esquivel-Herrera A, Fernandez G, Hendrickx ME, Hernandez-Vazquez S, Herrera-Cervantes H, Kahru M, Lavin M, Lluch-Belda D, Lluch-Cota DB, Lopez-Martinez J, Marinone SG, Nevarez-Martinez MO, Ortega-Garcia S, Palacios-Castro E, Pares-Sierra A, Ponce-Diaz G, Ramirez-Rodriguez M, Salinas-Zavala CA, Schwartzlose RA, Sierra-Beltran AP.  2007.  The Gulf of California: Review of ecosystem status and sustainability challenges. Progress in Oceanography. 73:1-26.   10.1016/j.pocean.2007.01.013   AbstractWebsite

The Gulf of California is unique because of its geographical location and conformation. It hosts diverse ecosystems and important fisheries that support industry and provide livelihood to coastal settlements. It is also the site of interests and problems, and an intense interaction among managers, producers, and conservationists. In this report, we scrutinize the abiotic (hydrography, climate, ocean circulation, and chemistry) and biotic (phyto- and zooplankton, fish, invertebrates, marine mammals, birds, and turtles) components of the marine ecosystem, and some particular aspects of climate variability, endemisms, harmful algal blooms, oxygen minimum layer, and pollution. We also review the current conditions and conflicts around the main fisheries (shrimp, small and large pelagic fishes, squid, artisanal and sportfishing), the most important human activity in the Gulf of California. We cover some aspects of management and conservation of fisheries, especially the claimed overexploitation of fish resources and the ecosystems, and review proposals for creating networks of marine protected areas. We conclude by identifying main needs for information and research, particularly the integration of data bases, the implementation of models and paleoreconstructions, establishment of monitoring programs, and the evaluation of fishing impacts and management actions. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.