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Leising, AW, Schroeder ID, Bograd SJ, Bjorkstedt EP, Field J, Sakuma K, Abell J, Robertson RR, Tyburczy J, Peterson WT, Brodeur R, Barcelo C, Auth TD, Daly EA, Campbell GS, Hildebrand JA, Suryan RM, Gladics AJ, Horton CA, Kahru M, Manzano-Sarabia M, McClatchie S, Weber ED, Watson W, Santora JA, Sydeman WJ, Melin SR, DeLong RL, Largier J, Kim SY, Chavez FP, Golightly RT, Schneider SR, Warzybok P, Bradley R, Jahncke J, Fisher J, Peterson J.  2014.  State of the California Current 2013-14: El Nino looming. California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations Reports. 55:51-87. AbstractWebsite

In 2013, the California current was dominated by strong coastal upwelling and high productivity. Indices of total cumulative upwelling for particular coastal locations reached some of the highest values on record. Chlorophyll a levels were high throughout spring and summer. Catches of upwelling-related fish species were also high. After a moderate drop in upwelling during fall 2013, the California current system underwent a major change in phase. Three major basin-scale indicators, the PDO, the NPGO, and the ENSO-MEI, all changed phase at some point during the winter of 2013/14. The PDO changed to positive values, indicative of warmer waters in the North Pacific; the NPGO to negative values, indicative of lower productivity along the coast; and the MEI to positive values, indicative of an oncoming El Nino. Whereas the majority of the California Current system appears to have transitioned to an El Nino state by August 2014, based on decreases in upwelling and chlorophyll a concentration, and increases in SST, there still remained pockets of moderate upwelling, cold water, and high chlorophyll a biomass at various central coast locations, unlike patterns seen during the more major El Ninos (e.g., the 97-98 event). Catches of rockfish, market squid, euphausiids, and juvenile sanddab remained high along the central coast, whereas catches of sardine and anchovy were low throughout the CCS. 2014 appears to be heading towards a moderate El Nino state, with some remaining patchy regions of upwelling-driven productivity along the coast. Superimposed on this pattern, three major regions have experienced possibly non-El Nino-related warming since winter: the Bering Sea, the Gulf of Alaska, and offshore of southern California. It is unclear how this warming may interact with the predicted El Nino, but the result will likely be reduced growth or reproduction for many key fisheries species.

Lluch-Cota, SE, Aragon-Noriega EA, Arreguin-Sanchez F, Aurioles-Gamboa D, Bautista-Romero JJ, Brusca RC, Cervantes-Duarte R, Cortes-Altamirano R, Del-Monte-Luna P, Esquivel-Herrera A, Fernandez G, Hendrickx ME, Hernandez-Vazquez S, Herrera-Cervantes H, Kahru M, Lavin M, Lluch-Belda D, Lluch-Cota DB, Lopez-Martinez J, Marinone SG, Nevarez-Martinez MO, Ortega-Garcia S, Palacios-Castro E, Pares-Sierra A, Ponce-Diaz G, Ramirez-Rodriguez M, Salinas-Zavala CA, Schwartzlose RA, Sierra-Beltran AP.  2007.  The Gulf of California: Review of ecosystem status and sustainability challenges. Progress in Oceanography. 73:1-26.   10.1016/j.pocean.2007.01.013   AbstractWebsite

The Gulf of California is unique because of its geographical location and conformation. It hosts diverse ecosystems and important fisheries that support industry and provide livelihood to coastal settlements. It is also the site of interests and problems, and an intense interaction among managers, producers, and conservationists. In this report, we scrutinize the abiotic (hydrography, climate, ocean circulation, and chemistry) and biotic (phyto- and zooplankton, fish, invertebrates, marine mammals, birds, and turtles) components of the marine ecosystem, and some particular aspects of climate variability, endemisms, harmful algal blooms, oxygen minimum layer, and pollution. We also review the current conditions and conflicts around the main fisheries (shrimp, small and large pelagic fishes, squid, artisanal and sportfishing), the most important human activity in the Gulf of California. We cover some aspects of management and conservation of fisheries, especially the claimed overexploitation of fish resources and the ecosystems, and review proposals for creating networks of marine protected areas. We conclude by identifying main needs for information and research, particularly the integration of data bases, the implementation of models and paleoreconstructions, establishment of monitoring programs, and the evaluation of fishing impacts and management actions. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.