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A
Anderson, CR, Kudela RM, Kahru M, Chao Y, Rosenfeld LK, Bahr FL, Anderson DM, Norris TA.  2016.  Initial skill assessment of the California Harmful Algae Risk Mapping (C-HARM) system. Harmful Algae. 59:1-18.   10.1016/j.hal.2016.08.006   AbstractWebsite

Toxic algal events are an annual burden on aquaculture and coastal ecosystems of California. The threat of domoic acid (DA) toxicity to human and wildlife health is the dominant harmful algal bloom (HAB) concern for the region, leading to a strong focus on prediction and mitigation of these blooms and their toxic effects. This paper describes the initial development of the California Harmful Algae Risk Mapping (C-HARM) system that predicts the spatial likelihood of blooms and dangerous levels of DA using a unique blend of numerical models, ecological forecast models of the target group, Pseudo-nitzschia, and satellite ocean color imagery. Data interpolating empirical orthogonal functions (DINEOF) are applied to ocean color imagery to fill in missing data and then used in a multivariate mode with other modeled variables to forecast biogeochemical parameters. Daily predictions (nowcast and forecast maps) are run routinely at the Central and Northern California Ocean Observing System (CeNCOOS) and posted on its public website. Skill assessment of model output for the nowcast data is restricted to nearshore pixels that overlap with routine pier monitoring of HABs in California from 2014 to 2015. Model lead times are best correlated with DA measured with solid phase adsorption toxin tracking (SPATI') and marine mammal strandings from DA toxicosis, suggesting long-term benefits of the HAB predictions to decision making. Over the next three years, the C-HARM application system will be incorporated into the NOAA operational HAB forecasting system and HAB Bulletin. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

F
Frants, M, Gille ST, Hewes CD, Holm-Hansen O, Kahru M, Lombrozo A, Measures CI, Mitchell BG, Wang HL, Zhou M.  2013.  Optimal multiparameter analysis of source water distributions in the Southern Drake Passage. Deep-Sea Research Part Ii-Topical Studies in Oceanography. 90:31-42.   10.1016/j.dsr2.2012.06.002   AbstractWebsite

In order to evaluate the effects of horizontal advection on iron supply in the vicinity of the Shackleton Transverse Ridge (SIR) in the southern Drake Passage, the water composition in the region is estimated along the isopycnal containing the subsurface iron peak. Optimal Multiparameter (OMP) analysis of temperature, salinity, oxygen and nutrient data is used to estimate the water composition at CID stations sampled in summer 2004 and winter 2006. The highest iron concentrations in the Ona Basin are found below the mixed layer, both in summer and in winter. The water composition derived from the OMP analysis is consistent with a scenario in which iron-rich shelf waters from the South Shetland Islands and the Antarctic Peninsula are advected northward on the eastern side of the SIR, where they interact with the low-iron waters of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) in the Ona Basin. The shelf waters and the ACC waters appear to interact through a stirring process without fully mixing, resulting in a filamented distribution that has also been inferred from the satellite data. To the west of the STR, the shelf waters are primarily confined to the continental shelf, and do not extend northwards. This source of water distribution is consistent with the idea that iron enters the Ona Basin from the continental shelf through advection along an isopycnal, resulting in an iron concentration peak occurring below the winter mixed layer in the Ona Basin. (c) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

K
Kahru, M, Marinone SG, Lluch-Cota SE, Pares-Sierra A, Mitchell BG.  2004.  Ocean-color variability in the Gulf of California: scales from days to ENSO. Deep-Sea Research Part Ii-Topical Studies in Oceanography. 51:139-146.   10.1016/j.dsr2.2003.04.001   AbstractWebsite

Time series of surface chlorophyll a concentration (C-sat) and phytoplankton net primary production (NPP) in the Gulf of California were derived using satellite data from OCTS, SeaWiFS, MODIS, AVHRR and the VGPM primary productivity model. The 6-year (1997-2003) time series showed variability at a multitude of scales. The annual cycle was the dominant mode in Gat variability in the entire gulf, except just south of the midriff islands where the semiannual cycle dominated. The semiannual cycle has C-sat maxima during the spring and fall transition periods when the general circulation is switching between cyclonic in the summer and anticyclonic in the winter and is less developed, therefore allowing a more efficient tidal mixing. The spring and fall maxima often consisted of multiple peaks of about 10 days. A significant peak at about 1 month was often present in the short-term C-sat variability, especially in areas near the midriff islands, suggesting the influence of tidal mixing. The interannual variability was dominated by the 1997-98 El Nino and the following La Nina. During the El Nino period NPP decreased by 30-40% in the southern part of the gulf (by approximately 1 Tg C month(-1)), but the changes in the central and northern parts were less evident. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

L
Landry, MR, Ohman MD, Goericke R, Stukel MR, Barbeau KA, Bundy R, Kahru M.  2012.  Pelagic community responses to a deep-water front in the California Current Ecosystem: overview of the A-Front Study. Journal of Plankton Research. 34:739-748.   10.1093/plankt/fbs025   AbstractWebsite

In October 2008, we investigated pelagic community composition and biomass, from bacteria to fish, across a sharp frontal gradient overlying deep waters south of Point Conception, California. This northsouth gradient, which we called A-Front, was formed by the eastward flow of the California Current and separated cooler mesotrophic waters of coastal upwelling origin to the north, from warm oligotrophic waters of likely mixed subarcticsubtropical origin to the south. Plankton biomass and phytoplankton growth rates were two to three times greater on the northern side, and primary production rates were elevated 5-fold to the north. Compared with either of the adjacent waters, the frontal interface was strongly enriched and uniquely defined by a subsurface bloom of large diatoms, elevated concentrations of suspension-feeding zooplankton, high bioacoustical estimates of pelagic fish and enhanced bacterial production and phytoplankton biomass and photosynthetic potential. Such habitats, though small in areal extent, may contribute disproportionately and importantly to regional productivity, nutrient cycling, carbon fluxes and trophic ecology. As a general introduction to the A-Front study, we provide an overview of its design and implementation, a brief summary of major findings and a discussion of potential mechanisms of plankton enrichment at the front.

M
Martinez-Fuentes, LM, Gaxiola-Castro G, Gomez-Ocampo E, Kahru M.  2016.  Effects of interannual events (1997-2012) on the hydrography and phytoplankton biomass of Sebastian Vizcaino Bay. Ciencias Marinas. 42:81-97.   10.7773/cm.v42i2.2626   AbstractWebsite

Sebastian Vizcaino Bay (Baja California Peninsula, Mexico) presents hydrographic conditions and phytoplankton biomass corresponding to a temperate/subtropical transition zone affected by large-scale tropical and subtropical events and those events originating in the subpolar Pacific region. Conditions in the first 50 m depth of the bay are mostly temperate (average temperature: 15.5 degrees C; average salinity: 33.6) and mesotrophic (phytoplankton biomass: >1 mg m(-3)). During spring and summer the bay is heavily influenced by the water transported by the California Current and the coastal upwelling generated off Punta Canoas. During the rest of the year the hydrography and phytoplankton biomass are mostly associated with subtropical conditions. The ENSO events arising in the period 1997-2012 affected the bay's water column. The extreme 1997-1998 El Nino generated increases of similar to 8 degrees C in temperature and similar to 0.8 in salinity. Local dynamic processes decreased the effects of moderate and weak El Nino events on phytoplankton biomass, with possible changes in the plankton functional groups. Due to the mostly temperate environment of the bay, the moderate 1998-2000 and 2010-2011 La Nina events did not generate a substantial change in the hydrography and phytoplankton biomass. However, the abundant subarctic water inflow in the period 2002-2006 abruptly decreased salinity and led to increased stratification of the water column and a reduction in phytoplankton chlorophyll.