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Valente, A, Sathyendranath S, Brotas V, Groom S, Grant M, Taberner M, Antoine D, Arnone R, Balch WM, Barker K, Barlow R, Belanger S, Berthon JF, Besiktepe S, Brando V, Canuti E, Chavez F, Claustre H, Crout R, Frouin R, Garcia-Soto C, Gibb S, Gould R, Hooker S, Kahru M, Klein H, Kratzer S, Loisel H, McKee D, Mitchell BG, Moisan T, Muller-Karger F, O'Dowd L, Ondrusek M, Poulton AJ, Repecaud M, Smyth T, Sosik HM, Twardowski M, Voss K, Werdell J, Wernand M, Zibordi G.  2016.  A compilation of global bio-optical in situ data for ocean-colour satellite applications. Earth System Science Data. 8:235-252.   10.5194/essd-8-235-2016   AbstractWebsite

A compiled set of in situ data is important to evaluate the quality of ocean-colour satellite-data records. Here we describe the data compiled for the validation of the ocean-colour products from the ESA Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative (OC-CCI). The data were acquired from several sources (MOBY, BOUSSOLE, AERONET-OC, SeaBASS, NOMAD, MERMAID, AMT, ICES, HOT, GeP&CO), span between 1997 and 2012, and have a global distribution. Observations of the following variables were compiled: spectral remote-sensing reflectances, concentrations of chlorophyll a, spectral inherent optical properties and spectral diffuse attenuation coefficients. The data were from multi-project archives acquired via the open internet services or from individual projects, acquired directly from data providers. Methodologies were implemented for homogenisation, quality control and merging of all data. No changes were made to the original data, other than averaging of observations that were close in time and space, elimination of some points after quality control and conversion to a standard format. The final result is a merged table designed for validation of satellite-derived ocean-colour products and available in text format. Metadata of each in situ measurement (original source, cruise or experiment, principal investigator) were preserved throughout the work and made available in the final table. Using all the data in a validation exercise increases the number of matchups and enhances the representativeness of different marine regimes. By making available the metadata, it is also possible to analyse each set of data separately. The compiled data are available at doi: 10.1594/PANGAEA.854832 (Valente et al., 2015).

Saba, VS, Hyde KJW, Rebuck ND, Friedland KD, Hare JA, Kahru M, Fogarty MJ.  2015.  Physical associations to spring phytoplankton biomass interannual variability in the US Northeast Continental Shelf. Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences. 120:205-220.   10.1002/2014jg002770   AbstractWebsite

The continental shelf of the Northeast United States and Nova Scotia is a productive marine ecosystem that supports a robust biomass of living marine resources. Understanding marine ecosystem sensitivity to changes in the physical environment can start with the first-order response of phytoplankton (i.e., chlorophyll a), the base of the marine food web. However, the primary physical associations to the interannual variability of chlorophyll a in these waters are unclear. Here we used ocean color satellite measurements and identified the local and remote physical associations to interannual variability of spring surface chlorophyll a from 1998 to 2013. The highest interannual variability of chlorophyll a occurred in March and April on the northern flank of Georges Bank, the western Gulf of Maine, and Nantucket Shoals. Complex interactions between winter wind speed over the Shelf, local winter water levels, and the relative proportions of Atlantic versus Labrador Sea source waters entering the Gulf of Maine from the previous summer/fall were associated with the variability of March/April chlorophyll a in Georges Bank and the Gulf of Maine. Sea surface temperature and sea surface salinity were not robust correlates to spring chlorophyll a. Surface nitrate in the winter was not a robust correlate to chlorophyll a or the physical variables in every case suggesting that nitrate limitation may not be the primary constraint on the interannual variability of the spring bloom throughout all regions. Generalized linear models suggest that we can resolve 88% of March chlorophyll a interannual variability in Georges Bank using lagged physical data.

Kahru, M, Gille ST, Murtugudde R, Strutton PG, Manzano-Sarabia M, Wang H, Mitchell BG.  2010.  Global correlations between winds and ocean chlorophyll. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans. 115   10.1029/2010jc006500   AbstractWebsite

Global time series of satellite-derived winds and surface chlorophyll concentration (Chl-a) show patterns of coherent areas with either positive or negative correlations. The correlation between Chl-a and wind speed is generally negative in areas with deep mixed layers and positive in areas with shallow mixed layers. These patterns are interpreted in terms of the main limiting factors that control phytoplankton growth, i.e., either nutrients that control phytoplankton biomass in areas with positive correlation between Chl-a and wind speed or light that controls phytoplankton biomass in areas with negative correlation between Chl-a and wind speed. More complex patterns are observed in the equatorial regions due to regional specificities in physical-biological interactions. These correlation patterns can be used to map out the biogeochemical provinces of the world ocean in an objective way.

Holm-Hansen, O, Kahru M, Hewes CD, Kawaguchi S, Kameda T, Sushin VA, Krasovski I, Priddle J, Korb R, Hewitt RP, Mitchell BG.  2004.  Temporal and spatial distribution of chlorophyll-a in surface waters of the Scotia Sea as determined by both shipboard measurements and satellite data. Deep-Sea Research Part Ii-Topical Studies in Oceanography. 51:1323-1331.   10.1016/j.dsr2.2004.06.004   AbstractWebsite

Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentrations in surface waters were measured at 137 hydrographic stations occupied by four research vessels participating in the CCAMLR 2000 Survey and the values were compared to estimates from data acquired by the SeaWiFS satellite. The Chl-a concentrations measured on board ship ranged from 0.06 to 14.6 mg m(-3), a range that includes most surface Chl-a concentrations during mid-summer in the Southern Ocean. Owing to persistent cloud cover over much of the Southern Ocean, it was necessary to acquire multi-day composites of satellite data in order to obtain reliable estimates of Chl-a at each of the hydrographic stations. The correlation between the median value for the eight-day composites and the Chl-a concentrations measured on board ship had an R-2 value of 0.82, with the satellite data under-estimating the values obtained on board ship at high Chl-a concentrations and slightly overestimating the shipboard data at Chl-a concentrations of < 0.2 mg m(-3). For Chl-a concentrations of < 1.0 mg m(-3), the ratio of the satellite estimates divided by the shipboard values was 0.89 +/- 0.45 (n = 50). As the mean Chl-a concentration in most pelagic Antarctic waters is close to 0.5 mg m(-3), satellite estimates for Chl-a concentrations in surface waters are thus close to shipboard measurements, and offer the advantage of providing synoptic maps of Chl-a distribution over extensive areas of the Southern Ocean. Satellite Chl-a images for the months preceding (December 1999) and following (February 2000) the CCAMLR 2000 Survey cruises showed that the general pattern of Chl-a concentration in the Scotia Sea and adjoining waters was similar in all three months, but that the phytoplankton biomass was generally lowest in December, reached maximal values in January, and started to decline in February. in contrast, Chl-a concentrations in Drake Passage declined progressively from early December through February. Published by Elsevier Ltd.