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Holland, LZ, Sower SA.  2010.  "Insights of Early Chordate Genomics: Endocrinology and Development in Amphioxus, Tunicates and Lampreys": Introduction to the symposium. Integrative and Comparative Biology. 50:17-21.   10.1093/icb/icq039   AbstractWebsite

This symposium focused on the evolution of chordate genomes, in particular, those events that occurred before the appearance of jawed vertebrates. The aim was to highlight insights that have come from the genome sequences of jawless chordates (lampreys, tunicates, and amphioxus) not only into evolution of chordate genomes, but also into the evolution of the organism. To this end, we brought together researchers whose recent work on these organisms spans the gap from genomics to the evolution of body forms and functions as exemplified by endocrine systems and embryonic development.

Boldrin, F, Martinucci G, Holland LZ, Miller RL, Burighel P.  2009.  Internal fertilization in the salp Thalia democratica. Canadian Journal of Zoology-Revue Canadienne De Zoologie. 87:928-940.   10.1139/z09-083   AbstractWebsite

Among tunicates, gamete morphology and sperm-egg interactions have been extensively investigated in ascidians, and to a lesser extent in appendicularians and thaliaceans. Sperm-egg interaction has been studied in only one salp, Pegea socia (Bosc, 1802). To determine if the pattern of internal fertilization of P. socia is generally applicable to salps, we performed an ultrastructural study on blastozooids of Thalia democratica (Forsskal, 1775). The ovary, located in the mantle near the gut, consists of a single oocyte connected to the atrial chamber wall by a "fertilization duct", resembling a stack of single cells without a lumen. The flagellate sperm has a long corkscrew-like head with the single mitochondrion twisted around the nucleus. Fertilization is internal, and sperm actively penetrate the atrial wall and bore through the cells of the fertilization duct. During this process, the fertilization duct shortens as the cells move apart, one to one side and the next to the other, and rejoin to form a central lumen, which contains many sperm. At the same time a few sperm reach the periovular space for fertilizing the oocyte. Comparisons with P. socia indicate that this singular mode of internal fertilization with a complex corkscrew sperm actively penetrating the fertilization duct cells, probably evolved in the salp ancestor and has been modified to some extent in various genera.

Jaffe, LA, Gould-Somero M, Holland LZ.  1979.  Ionic Mechanism of the Fertilization Potential of the Marine Worm, Urechis caupo (Echiura) . Journal of General Physiology . 73(4):469-492.   10.1085/jgp.73.4.469  
Pareti, FI, Fujimura Y, Dent JA, Holland LZ, Zimmerman TS, Ruggeri ZM.  1986.  Isolation and Characterization of a Collagen Binding Domain in Human Vonwillebrand-Factor. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 261:5310-5315.Website
Glardon, S, Holland LZ, Gehring WJ, Holland ND.  1998.  Isolation and developmental expression of the amphioxus Pax-6 gene (AmphiPax-6): insights into eye and photoreceptor evolution. Development. 125:2701-2710. AbstractWebsite

Pax-6 genes have been identified from a broad range of invertebrate and vertebrate animals and shown to be always involved in early eye development. Therefore, it has been proposed that the various types of eyes evolved from a single eye prototype, by a Pax-6-dependent mechanism. Here we describe the characterization of a cephalochordate Pax-6 gene. The single amphioxus Pax-6 gene (AmphiPax-6) can produce several alternatively spliced transcripts, resulting in proteins with markedly different amino and carboxy termini, The amphioxus Pax-6 proteins are 92% identical to mammalian Pax-6 proteins in the paired domain and 100% identical in the homeodomain. Expression of AmphiPax-6 in the anterior epidermis of embryos may be related to development of an olfactory epithelium. Expression is also detectable in Hatschek's left diverticulum as it forms the preoral ciliated pit, part of which gives rise to the homolog of the vertebrate anterior pituitary, A zone of expression in the anterior neural plate of early embryos is carried into the cerebral vesicle (a probable diencephalic homolog) during neurulation, This zone includes cells that will differentiate into the lamellar body, a presumed homolog of the vertebrate pineal eye, In neurulae, AmphiPax-6 is also expressed in ventral cells at the anterior tip of the nerve cord; these cells are precursors of the photoreceptive neurons of the frontal eye, the presumed homolog of the vertebrate paired eyes. However, AmphiPax-6 expression was not detected in two additional types of photoreceptors, the Joseph cells or the organs of Hesse, which are evidently relatively recent adaptations (ganglionic photoreceptors) and appear to be rare exceptions to the general rule that animal photoreceptors develop from a genetic program triggered by Pax-6.

Cross, NL, Slezynger TC, Holland LZ.  1985.  Isolation and Partial Characterization of Urechis-Caupo Egg Envelopes. Journal of Cell Science. 74:193-205.Website