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Holland, LZ.  2002.  Heads or tails? Amphioxus and the evolution of anterior-posterior patterning in deuterostomes Developmental Biology. 241:209-228.   10.1006/dbio.2001.0503   AbstractWebsite

In Xenopus, the canonical Wnt-signaling pathway acting through (beta-catenin functions both in establishing the dorso-ventral axis and in patterning the anterior-posterior axis. This pathway also acts in patterning the animal-vegetal axis in sea urchins. However, because sea urchin development is typically indirect, and adult sea urchins have pentamerous symmetry and lack a longitudinal nerve cord, it has not been clear how the roles of the canonical Wnt-signaling pathway in axial patterning in sea urchins and vertebrates are evolutionarily related. The developmental expression patterns of Notch, brachyury, caudal, and eight Wnt genes have now been determined for the invertebrate chordate amphioxus, which, like sea urchins, has an early embryo that gastrulates by invagination, but like vertebrates, has a later embryo with a dorsal hollow nerve cord that elongates posteriorly from a tail bud. Comparisons of amphioxus with other deuterostomes suggest that patterning of the ancestral deuterostome embryo along its anterior-posterior axis during the late blastula and subsequent stages involved a posterior signaling center including Writs, Notch, and transcription factors such as brachyury and caudal. In tunicate embryos, in which cell numbers are reduced and cell fates largely determined during cleavage stages, only vestiges of this signaling center are still apparent; these include localization of Wnt-5 mRNA to the posterior cytoplasm shortly after fertilization and localization of beta-catenin to vegetal nuclei during cleavage stages. Neither in tunicates nor in amphioxus is there any evidence that the canonical Wnt-signaling pathway functions in establishment of the dorso-ventral axis. Thus, roles for Wnt-signaling in dorso-ventral patterning of embryos may be a vertebrate innovation that arose in connection with the evolution of yolky eggs and gastrulation by extensive involution. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science.

Fujimura, Y, Titani K, Holland LZ, Roberts JR, Kostel P, Ruggeri ZM, Zimmerman TS.  1987.  A Heparin-Binding Domain of Human Vonwillebrand-Factor - Characterization and Localization to a Tryptic Fragment Extending from Amino-Acid Residue Val-449 to Lys-728. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 262:1734-1739.Website
Holland, ND, Holland LZ.  1991.  The Histochemistry and Fine-Structure of the Nutritional Reserves in the Fin Rays of a Lancelet, Branchiostoma-Lanceolatum (Cephalochordata = Acrania). Acta Zoologica. 72:203-207. AbstractWebsite

Adults of the European lancelet were collected at Banyuls-sur-Mer (Mediterranean France) in mid-spring, shortly before the onset of the breeding season. The dorsal and ventral fin rays were studied by light microscopic histochemistry and by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Each fin ray is a mass of extracellular material that accumulates beneath the mesothelium of a fin box coelom. The fin ray material is rich in lipids, proteins, and neutral mucopolysaccharides. TEM reveals no lipid droplets in this material. which consists entirely of a packed mass of 15-20 nm granules of medium electron density. It is likely that these granules consist of glycoproteins or glycolipoproteins. Our results are consistent with the proposal of Azariah (1965, Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India 7: 459-661 ) that lancelet fin rays are nutritional reserves supporting gametogenesis during the breeding season.

Fulcher, CA, Roberts JR, Holland LZ, Zimmerman TS.  1985.  Human Factor-Viii Procoagulant Protein - Monoclonal-Antibodies Define Precursor-Product Relationships and Functional Epitopes. Journal of Clinical Investigation. 76:117-124.   10.1172/jci111933   Website
Holland, ND, Holland LZ, Heimberg A.  2015.  Hybrids between the Florida amphioxus (Branchiostoma floridae) and the Bahamas lancelet (Asymmetron lucayanum): Developmental morphology and chromosome counts. Biological Bulletin. 228:13-24. AbstractWebsite

The cephalochordate genera Branchiostoma and Asymmetron diverged during the Mesozoic Era. In spite of the long separation of the parental clades, eggs of the Florida amphioxus, B. floridae, when fertilized with sperm of the Bahamas lancelet, A. lucayanum (and vice versa), develop through embryonic and larval stages. The larvae reach the chordate phylotypic stage (i.e., the pharyngula), characterized by a dorsal nerve cord, notochord, perforate pharynx, and segmented trunk musculature. After about 2 weeks of larval development, the hybrids die, as do the A. lucayanum purebreds, although all were eating the same algal diet that sustains B. floridae purebreds through adulthood in the laboratory; it is thus unclear whether death of the hybrids results from incompatible parental genomes or an inadequate diet. The diploid chromosome count in A. lucayanum and B. floridae purebreds is, respectively, 34 and 38, whereas it is 36 in hybrids in either direction. The hybrid larvae exhibit several morphological characters intermediate between those of the parents, including the size of the preoral ciliated pit and the angles of deflection of the gill slits and anus from the ventral midline. Based on the time since the two parent clades diverged (120 or 160 million years, respectively, by nuclear and mitochondrial gene analysis), the cross between Branchiostoma and Asymmetron is the most extreme example of hybridization that has ever been unequivocally demonstrated among multicellular animals.