An amphioxus winged helix/forkhead gene, AmphiFoxD: Insights into vertebrate neural crest evolution

Yu, JK, Holland ND, Holland LZ.  2002.  An amphioxus winged helix/forkhead gene, AmphiFoxD: Insights into vertebrate neural crest evolution. Developmental Dynamics. 225:289-297.

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cephalochordata, duplication, expression, forebrain, gene, gene co-option, head, helix proteins, human forkhead, notochord, reference library-system, somite, transcription factor foxd3, xenopus, zebrafish


During amphioxus development, the neural plate is bordered by cells expressing many genes with homologs involved in vertebrate neural crest induction. However, these amphioxus cells evidently lack additional genetic programs for the cell delaminations, migrations, and differentiations characterizing definitive vertebrate neural crest. We characterize an amphioxus winged helix/forkhead gene (AmphiFoxD) closely related to vertebrate FoxD genes. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that the AmphiFoxD is basal to vertebrate FoxD1, FoxD2, FoxD3, FoxD4, and FoxD5. One of these vertebrate genes (FoxD3) consistently marks neural crest during development. Early in amphioxus development, AmphiFoxD is expressed medially in the anterior neural plate as well as in axial (notochordal) and paraxial mesoderm; later, the gene is expressed in the somites, notochord, cerebral vesicle (diencephalon), and hindgut endoderm. However, there is never any expression in cells bordering the neural plate. We speculate that an AmphiFoxD homolog in the common ancestor of amphioxus and vertebrates was involved in histogenic processes in the mesoderm (evagination and delamination of the somites and notochord); then, in the early vertebrates, descendant paralogs of this gene began functioning in the presumptive neural crest bordering the neural plate to help make possible the delaminations and cell migrations that characterize definitive vertebrate neural crest. (C) 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.