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Talley, LD.  1988.  Potential Vorticity Distribution in the North Pacific. Journal of Physical Oceanography. 18:89-106.   10.1175/1520-0485(1988)018<0089:pvditn>2.0.co;2   AbstractWebsite

Vertical sections and maps of potential vorticity ρ−1f∂ρ/∂z for the North Pacific are presented. On shallow isopycnals, high potential vorticity is found in the tropics, subpolar gyre, and along the eastern boundary of the subtropical gyre, all associated with Ekman upwelling. Low potential vorticity is found in the western subtropical gyre (subtropical mode water), in a separate patch near the sea surface in the eastern subtropical gyre and extending around the gyre, and near sea-surface outcrops in the subpolar gyre; the last is analogous to the subpolar mode water of the North Atlantic and Southern Ocean.Meridional gradients of potential vorticity are high between the subtropical and subpolar gyres at densities which outcrop only in the subpolar gyre; lateral gradients of potential vorticity are low in large regions of the subtropical gyre on these isopycnals. On slightly denser isopycnals which do not outcrop in the North Pacific, there are large regions of low potential vorticity gradients which cross the subtropical-subpolar gyre boundary. These regions decrease in area with depth and vanish between 2500 and 3000 meters. Regions of low lateral gradients of potential vorticity are surrounded by and overlie regions where the meridional gradient of potential vorticity is approximately β. In the abyssal waters, below 3500 meters, meridional potential vorticity gradients again decrease, perhaps associated with slow geothermal heating. The depth and shape of the region wheel potential vorticity is relatively uniform or possesses closed contours is noted and related to theories of wind-driven circulation.

Talley, LD, Fryer G, Lumpkin R.  1998.  Physical oceanography of the tropical Pacific. Geography of the Pacific Islands. ( Rapaport M, Ed.).:19-32., Honolulu: Bess Press Abstract
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Talley, LD, McCartney MS.  1982.  Distribution and Circulation of Labrador Sea-Water. Journal of Physical Oceanography. 12:1189-1205.   10.1175/1520-0485(1982)012<1189:dacols>2.0.co;2   AbstractWebsite

Labrador Sea Water is the final product of the cyclonic circulation of Subpolar Mode Water in the open northern North Atlantic (McCartney and Talley, 1982). The temperature and salinity of the convectively formed Subpolar Mode Water decrease from 14.7°C, 36.08‰ to 3.4°C, 34.88‰ on account of the cumulative effects of excess precipitation and cooling. The coldest Mode Water is Labrador Sea Water, which spreads at mid-depths and is found throughout the North Atlantic Ocean north of 40°N and along its western boundary to 18°N.A vertical minimum in potential vorticity is used as the primary tracer for Labrador Sea Water. Labrador Sea Water is advected in three main directions out of the Labrador Sea: 1) northeastward into the Irminger Sea, 2) southeastward across the Atlantic beneath the North Atlantic current, and 3) southward past Newfoundland with the Labrador Current and thence westward into the Slope Water region, crossing under the Gulf Stream off Cape Hatteras.The Labrador Sea Water core is nearly coincident with an isopycnal which also intersects the lower part of the Mediterranean Water, whose high salinity and high potential vorticity balance the low salinity and low potential vorticity of the Labrador Sea Water. Nearly isopycnal mixing between them produces the upper part of the North Atlantic Deep Water.A 27-year data set from the Labrador Sea at Ocean Weather Station Bravo shows decade-long changes in the temperature, salinity, density and formation rate of Labrador Sea Water, indicating that Labrador Sea Water property distributions away from the Labrador Sea are in part due to changes in the source.

Talley, LD.  1996.  North Atlantic circulation and variability, reviewed for the CNLS conference. Physica D. 98:625-646.   10.1016/0167-2789(96)00123-6   AbstractWebsite

The circulation and water mass structure of the North Atlantic are reviewed, with emphasis on the large-scale overturning cell which produces North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW). Properties and transports for its major components (Nordic Seas Overflow Water, Labrador Sea Water, Mediterranean Water, Antarctic Intermediate Water and Antarctic Bottom Water) are reviewed. The transport estimates and properties of NADW coupled with the observed meridional heat transport in the Atlantic limit the temperature of northward flow which replenishes the NADW to the range 11-15 degrees C. The high salinity of the North Atlantic compared with other ocean basins is important for its production of intermediate and deep waters; about one third of its higher evaporation compared with the North Pacific is due to the Mediterranean. The evaporation/precipitation balance for the North Atlantic is similar to the Indian and South Atlantic Oceans; the difference between the North and South Atlantic may be that high evaporation in the North Atlantic affects much greater depths through Mediterranean Water production. Also described briefly is variability of water properties in the upper layers of the subtropical/subpolar North Atlantic, as linked to the North Atlantic Oscillation. The oceanographic time series at Bermuda is then used to show decadal variations in the properties of the Subtropical Mode Water, a thick layer which lies in the upper 500 m. Salinity of this layer and at the sea surface increases during periods when the North Atlantic westerlies weaken between Iceland and the Azores and shift southwestward. (The North Atlantic Oscillation index is low during these periods). Temperature at the surface and in this layer are slightly negatively correlated with salinity, decreasing when salinity increases. It is hypothesized that the salinity increases result from incursion of saline water from the eastern subtropical gyre forced by the southward migration of the westerlies, and that the small temperature decreases are due to increased convection in the Sargasso Sea, also resulting from the southward shift of the westerlies.

Talley, LD.  2008.  Freshwater transport estimates and the global overturning circulation: Shallow, deep and throughflow components. Progress in Oceanography. 78:257-303.   10.1016/j.pocean.2008.05.001   AbstractWebsite

Meridional ocean freshwater transports and convergences are calculated from absolute geostrophic velocities and Ekman transports. The freshwater transports are analyzed in terms of mass-balanced contributions from the shallow, ventilated circulation of the subtropical gyres, intermediate and deep water overturns, and Indonesian Throughflow and Bering Strait components. The following are the major conclusions: 1. Excess freshwater in high latitudes must be transported to the evaporative lower latitudes, as is well known. The calculations here show that the northern hemisphere transports most of its high latitude freshwater equatorward through North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) formation (as in [Rahmstorf, S., 1996. On the freshwater forcing and transport of the Atlantic thermohaline circulation. Climate Dynamics 12, 799-811]), in which saline subtropical surface waters absorb the freshened Arctic and subpolar North Atlantic surface waters (0.45 +/- 0.15 Sv for a 15 Sv overturn), plus a small contribution from the high latitude North Pacific through Bering Strait (0.06 +/- 0.02 Sv). In the North Pacific, formation of 2.4 Sv of North Pacific Intermediate Water (NPIW) transports 0.07 +/- 0.02 Sv of freshwater equatorward. In complete contrast, almost all of the 0.61 +/- 0.13 Sv of freshwater gained in the Southern Ocean is transported equatorward in the upper ocean, in roughly equal magnitudes of about 0.2 Sv each in the three subtropical gyres, with a smaller contribution of <0. 1 Sv from the Indonesian Throughflow loop through the Southern Ocean. The large Southern Ocean deep water formation (27 Sv) exports almost no freshwater (0.01 +/- 0.03 Sv) or actually imports freshwater if deep overturns in each ocean are considered separately (-0.06 +/- 0.04 Sv). This northern-southern hemisphere asymmetry is likely a consequence of the "Drake Passage" effect, which limits the southward transport of warm, saline surface waters into the Antarctic [Toggweiler, J.R., Samuels, B., 1995a. Effect of Drake Passage on the global thermohaline circulation. Deep-Sea Research 1 42(4), 477-500]. The salinity contrast between the deep Atlantic, Pacific and Indian source waters and the denser new Antarctic waters is limited by their small temperature contrast, resulting in small freshwater transports. No such constraint applies to NADW formation, which draws on warm, saline subtropical surface waters. 2. The Atlantic/Arctic and Indian Oceans are net evaporative basins, hence import freshwater via ocean circulation. For the Atlantic/Arctic north of 32 degrees S, freshwater import (0.28 +/- 0.04 Sv) comes from the Pacific through Bering Strait (0.06 0.02 Sv), from the Southern Ocean via the shallow gyre circulation (0.20 +/- 0.02 Sv), and from three nearly canceling conversions to the NADW layer (0.02 0.02 Sv): from saline Benguela Current surface water (-0.05 +/- 0.01 Sv), fresh AAIW (0.06 0.01 Sv) and fresh AABW/LCDW (0.01 0.01 Sv). Thus, the NADW freshwater balance is nearly closed within the Atlantic/Arctic Ocean and the freshwater transport associated with export of NADW to the Southern Ocean is only a small component of the Atlantic freshwater budget. For the Indian Ocean north of 32 degrees S, import of the required 0.37 +/- 0.10 Sv of freshwater comes from the Pacific through the Indonesian Throughflow (0.23 +/- 0.05 Sv) and the Southern Ocean via the shallow gyre circulation (0.18 +/- 0.02 Sv), with a small export southward due to freshening of bottom waters as they upwell into deep and intermediate waters (-0.04 +/- 0.03 Sv). The Pacific north of 28 degrees S is essentially neutral with respect to freshwater, -0.04 +/- 0.09 Sv. This is the nearly balancing sum of export to the Atlantic through Bering Strait (-0.07 +/- 0.02 Sv), export to the Indian through the Indonesian Throughflow (-0.17 +/- 0.05 Sv), a negligible export due to freshening of upwelled bottom waters (-0.03 +/- 0.03 Sv), and import of 0.23 +/- 0.04 Sv from the Southern Ocean via the shallow gyre circulation. 3. Bering Strait's small freshwater transport of <0.1 Sv helps maintains the Atlantic-Pacific salinity difference. However, proportionally large variations in the small Bering Strait transport would only marginally impact NADW salinity, whose freshening relative to saline surface water is mainly due to air-sea/runoff fluxes in the subpolar North Atlantic and Arctic. In contrast, in the Pacific, because the total overturning rate is much smaller than in the Atlantic, Bering Strait freshwater export has proportionally much greater impact on North Pacific salinity balances, including NPIW salinity. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Talley, L, Fine R, Lumpkin R, Maximenko N, Morrow R.  2010.  Surface Ventilation and Circulation. Proceedings of OceanObs’09: Sustained Ocean Observations and Information for Society. 1( Hall J, Harrison DE, Stammer D, Eds.).   10.5270/OceanObs09.pp.38   Abstract
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Talley, LD, Joyce TM, de Szoeke RA.  1991.  Transpacific Sections at 47-Degrees-N and 152-Degrees-W - Distribution of Properties. Deep-Sea Research Part a-Oceanographic Research Papers. 38:S63-S82.   10.1016/S0198-0149(12)80005-7   AbstractWebsite

Three CTD/hydrographic sections with closely-spaced stations were occupied between May 1984 and May 1987, primarily in the subpolar North Pacific. Vertical sections of CTD quantities, oxygen and nutrients are presented. Upper water properties suggest that the Subarctic Front is located south of the subtropical/subpolar gyre boundary at 152-degrees-W, that there is leakage of North Pacific Intermediate Water from the subtropical to the subpolar gyre in the eastern Pacific, and verify the poleward shift of the subtropical gyre center with depth. At intermediate depths (1000-2000 m), a separation between the western and eastern parts of the subpolar gyre is found at 180-degrees along 47-degrees-N. Abyssal waters are oldest in the northeast, with primary sources indicated at the western boundary and north of the Hawaiian Ridge. Properties and geostrophic velocity from detailed crossings of the boundary trenches suggest that flow in the bottom of the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench at the western boundary at 42-degrees-N and 47-degrees-N is northward. Very narrow boundary layers at intermediate depths are revealed in silica, as well as in the dynamical properties, at both the western and northern boundaries, and probably reflect southward and westward flow.

Talley, LD.  1999.  Simple coupled midlatitude climate models. Journal of Physical Oceanography. 29:2016-2037.   10.1175/1520-0485(1999)029<2016:scmcm>2.0.co;2   AbstractWebsite

A set of simple analytical models is presented and evaluated for interannual to decadal coupled ocean-atmosphere modes at midlatitudes. The atmosphere and ocean are each in Sverdrup balance at these long timescales. The atmosphere's temperature response to heating determines the spatial phase relation between SST and sea level pressure (SLP) anomalies. Vertical advection balancing heating produces high (low) SLP lying east of warm (cold) SST anomalies, as observed in the Antarctic circumpolar wave (ACW), the decadal North Pacific mode, and the interannual North Atlantic mode. Zonal advection in an atmosphere with a rigid lid produces low SLP east of warm SST. However, if an ad hoc equivalent barotropic atmospheric response is assumed, high SLP lies east of warm SST. Relaxation to heating produces behavior like the observed North Atlantic decadal pattern, with low SLP over warm SST. Meridional advection in the atmosphere cannot produce the observed SST/SLP patterns. The dominant balance in the oceans temperature equation determines the phase speed of the modes. The coupled mode is nondispersive in all models examined here, indicating the need for additional processes. For modes with an SST-SLP offset as observed in the ACW and North Pacific, Ekman convergence acting as a heat source causes eastward propagation relative to the mean ocean flow. Sverdrup response to Ekman convergence, acting on the mean meridional temperature gradient, causes westward propagation relative to the mean ocean Row. When the ocean temperature adjusts through surface heat flux alone, the mode is advected by the mean ocean flow and is damped. Relaxation to heating in the atmosphere, when operating with Sverdrup response in the ocean, produces the only complete solution presented here that exhibits growth, with an a-folding timescale of order (100 days). This solution appears appropriate for the North Atlantic decadal mode. In Northern Hemisphere basins, with meridional boundaries, the: same sets of dynamics create the observed SST-SLP phase relation. An additional factor is the creation of SST anomalies through variations in the western boundary current strengths, which are related to the zonally integrated wind stress curl over the whole basin. If barotropic and hence fast adjustment is assumed, the resulting positive feedback can maintain or strengthen the coupled anomalies in the North Pacific and interannual North Atlantic modes.

Talley, LD, Sprintall J.  2005.  Deep expression of the Indonesian Throughflow: Indonesian Intermediate Water in the South Equatorial Current. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans. 110   10.1029/2004jc002826   AbstractWebsite

[1] The narrow westward flow of the South Equatorial Current ( SEC), centered at 12 degrees S and carrying freshened water from the Indonesian seas, is traced across the Indian Ocean using data from the World Ocean Circulation Experiment. The jet is remarkably zonal and quasi-barotropic, following the potential vorticity contours characteristic of the tropics, separating higher-oxygen and lower-nutrient waters of the subtropics from the oxygen-depleted waters of the tropics. The fresh surface waters are the usual Indonesian Throughflow Water reported previously. Less well studied is the intermediate-depth SEC carrying fresher water from the Banda Sea and Pacific, known as Indonesian Intermediate Water (IIW) or Banda Sea Intermediate Water. The high-silica signature of IIW is documented here, permitting us to ( 1) trace the spread of IIW from sill density at Leti Strait to higher density as it is diluted toward the west and ( 2) define an IIW core for transport estimates, of 3 to 7 Sv westward, using geostrophic and LADCP velocities. The high IIW silica is traced to the Banda Sea, arising from known diapycnal mixing of Pacific waters entering through Lifamatola Strait and local sources. New heat, freshwater, oxygen, and silica budgets within the Indonesian seas suggest at least 3 Sv of inflow through the relatively deep Lifamatola Strait, supplementing the observed 9 Sv through the shallower Makassar Strait. Both shallow and deep inflows and outflows, along with vigorous mixing and internal sources within the Indonesian seas, are required to capture the transformation of Pacific to Indonesian Throughflow waters.

Talley, LD, Lobanov V, Ponomarev V, Salyuk A, Tishchenko P, Zhabin I, Riser S.  2003.  Deep convection and brine rejection in the Japan Sea. Geophysical Research Letters. 30   10.1029/2002gl016451   AbstractWebsite

Direct water mass renewal through convection deeper than 1000 m and the independent process of dense water production through brine rejection during sea ice formation occur at only a limited number of sites globally. Our late winter observations in 2000 and 2001 show that the Japan (East) Sea is a part of both exclusive groups. Japan Sea deep convection apparently occurs every winter, but massive renewal of bottom waters through brine rejection had not occurred for many decades prior to the extremely cold winter of 2001. The sites for both renewal mechanisms are south of Vladivostok, in the path of cold continental air outbreaks.

Talley, LD, Tishchenko P, Luchin V, Nedashkovskiy A, Sagalaev S, Kang DJ, Warner M, Min DH.  2004.  Atlas of Japan (East) Sea hydrographic properties in summer, 1999. Progress in Oceanography. 61:277-348.   10.1016/j.pocean.2004.06.011   AbstractWebsite

Hydrographic properties from CTD and discrete bottle sample profiles covering the Japan (East) Sea in summer, 1999, are presented in vertical sections, maps at standard depths, maps on isopycnal surfaces, and as property-property distributions. This data set covers most of the Sea with the exception of the western boundary region and northern Tatar Strait, and includes nutrients, pH, alkalinity, and chlorofluorocarbons, as well as the usual temperature, salinity, and oxygen observations. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Talley, LD, Raymer ME.  1982.  Eighteen Degree Water variability. Journal of Marine Research. 40:757-775. AbstractWebsite

The Eighteen Degree Water of the western North Atlantic is formed by deep convection in winter. The circulation and changing properties of Eighteen Degree Water are studied using hydrographic data from a long time series at the Panulirus station (32 degrees 10'N, 64 degrees 30'W) and from the Gulf Stream '60 experiment. Due to its relative vertical homogeneity, which persists year-round, the Eighteen Degree Water can be identified by its low potential vorticity (f/rho)(partial derivative rho/partial derivative z). The Eighteen Degree Water is formed in an east-west band of varying characteristics offshore of the Gulf Stream. The Eighteen Degree Water formed at the eastern end of the subtropical gyre recirculates westward past the Panulirus station. Renewal of Eighteen Degree Water occurred regularly from 1954 to 1971, ceased from 1972 to 1975, and began again after 1975. The properties (18 degrees C, 36.5 parts per thousand) of Eighteen Degree Water seen at the Panulirus station were nearly uniform from 1954 to 1964. There was a shift in properties in 1964 and by 1972 the Eighteen Degree Water properties were 17.1 degrees C, 36.4 parts per thousand, The new Eighteen Degree Water formed after 1975 had nearly the same characteristics as that of 1954. The density, potential temperature, salinity and the temperature-salinity relation of the entire upper water column at the Panulirus station changed at the same time as the Eighteen Degree Water properties. The upper water column was denser and colder from 1964 to 1975 than from 1954 to 1964 and after 1975.

Talley, LD.  1996.  Antarctic Intermediate Water in the South Atlantic. The South Atlantic : present and past circulation. ( Wefer G, Berger WH, Siedler G, Webb D, Eds.).:219-238., Berlin ; New York: Springer Abstract
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Talley, LD, Pickard GL, Emery WJ, Swift JH.  2011.  Descriptive physical oceanography : an introduction. :viii,555p.,60p.ofplates., Amsterdam ; Boston: Academic Press Abstract

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Talley, LD.  1993.  Distribution and Formation of North Pacific Intermediate Water. Journal of Physical Oceanography. 23:517-537.   10.1175/1520-0485(1993)023<0517:dafonp>2.0.co;2   AbstractWebsite

The North Pacific Intermediate Water (NPIW), defined as the main salinity minimum in the subtropical North Pacific, is examined with respect to its overall property distributions. These suggest that NPIW is formed only in the northwestern subtropical gyre; that is, in the mixed water region between the Kuroshio Extension and Oyashio front. Subsequent modification along its advective path increases its salinity and reduces its oxygen. The mixed water region is studied using all bottle data available from the National Oceanographic Data Center, with particular emphasis on several winters. Waters from the Oyashio, Kuroshio, and the Tsugaru Warm Current influence the mixed water region, with a well-defined local surface water mass formed as a mixture of the surface waters from these three sources. Significant salinity minima in the mixed water region are grouped into those that are directly related to the winter surface density and are found at the base of the oxygen-saturated surface layer, and those that form deeper, around warm core rings. Both could be a source of the more uniform NPIW to the east, the former through preferential erosion of the minima from the top and the latter through simple advection. Both sources could exist all year with a narrowly defined density range that depends on winter mixed-layer density in the Oyashio region.

Talley, LD, Feely RA, Sloyan BM, Wanninkhof R, Baringer MO, Bullister JL, Carlson CA, Doney SC, Fine RA, Firing E, Gruber N, Hansell DA, Ishii M, Johnson GC, Katsumata K, Key RM, Kramp M, Langdon C, Macdonald AM, Mathis JT, McDonagh EL, Mecking S, Millero FJ, Mordy CW, Nakano T, Sabine CL, Smethie WM, Swift JH, Tanhua T, Thurnherr AM, Warner MJ, Zhang J-Z.  2016.  Changes in Ocean Heat, Carbon Content, and Ventilation: A Review of the First Decade of GO-SHIP Global Repeat Hydrography. Annual Review of Marine Science. 8:185-215.   10.1146/annurev-marine-052915-100829   AbstractWebsite

Global ship-based programs, with highly accurate, full water column physical and biogeochemical observations repeated decadally since the 1970s, provide a crucial resource for documenting ocean change. The ocean, a central component of Earth's climate system, is taking up most of Earth's excess anthropogenic heat, with about 19% of this excess in the abyssal ocean beneath 2,000 m, dominated by Southern Ocean warming. The ocean also has taken up about 27% of anthropogenic carbon, resulting in acidification of the upper ocean. Increased stratification has resulted in a decline in oxygen and increase in nutrients in the Northern Hemisphere thermocline and an expansion of tropical oxygen minimum zones. Southern Hemisphere thermocline oxygen increased in the 2000s owing to stronger wind forcingand ventilation. The most recent decade of global hydrography has mapped dissolved organic carbon, a large, bioactive reservoir, for the first time and quantified its contribution to export production (∼20%) and deep-ocean oxygen utilization. Ship-based measurements also show that vertical diffusivity increases from a minimum in the thermocline to a maximum within the bottom 1,500 m, shifting our physical paradigm of the ocean's overturning circulation.

Talley, LD, Rosso I, Kamenkovich I, Mazloff MR, Wang J, Boss E, Gray AR, Johnson KS, Key R, Riser SC, Williams NL, Sarmiento JL.  2018.  Southern Ocean biogeochemical float deployment strategy, with example from the Greenwich Meridian line (GO-SHIP A12). Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans.   10.1029/2018JC014059   Abstract

Biogeochemical Argo floats, profiling to 2000 m depth, are being deployed throughout the Southern Ocean by the Southern Ocean Carbon and Climate Observations and Modeling program (SOCCOM). The goal is 200 floats by 2020, to provide the first full set of annual cycles of carbon, oxygen, nitrate and optical properties across multiple oceanographic regimes. Building from no prior coverage to a sparse array, deployments are based on prior knowledge of water mass properties, mean frontal locations, mean circulation and eddy variability, winds, air-sea heat/freshwater/carbon exchange, prior Argo trajectories, and float simulations in the Southern Ocean State Estimate (SOSE) and Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM). Twelve floats deployed from the 2014-2015 Polarstern cruise from South Africa to Antarctica are used as a test case to evaluate the deployment strategy adopted for SOCCOM's 20 deployment cruises and 126 floats to date. After several years, these floats continue to represent the deployment zones targeted in advance: (1) Weddell Gyre sea ice zone, including the Antarctic Slope Front, Maud Rise, and the open gyre; (2) Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) including the topographically-steered Southern zone ‘chimney' where upwelling carbon/nutrient-rich deep waters produce surprisingly large carbon dioxide outgassing; (3) Subantarctic and Subtropical zones between the ACC and Africa; and (4) Cape Basin. Argo floats and eddy-resolving HYCOM simulations were the best predictors of individual SOCCOM float pathways, with uncertainty after 2 years on the order of 1000 km in the sea ice zone and more than double that in and north of the ACC.

Talley, LD, de Szoeke RA.  1986.  Spatial Fluctuations North of the Hawaiian Ridge. Journal of Physical Oceanography. 16:981-984.   10.1175/1520-0485(1986)016<0981:sfnoth>2.0.co;2   AbstractWebsite

A closely spaced hydrographic section from Oabu, Hawaii to 28°N, 152°W and then north along 152°W shows strong eddy or current features with dynamic height signatures of about 30 dyn cm across 150 km and associated geostrophic surface velocities of approximately 60 cm s−1. Two such features are found between Hawaii and the Subtropical Front, which is located at 32°N. Similar features have been observed on a number of other hydrographic and XBT sections perpendicular to the Hawaiian Ridge. It is hypothesized that the features are semipermanent, are due to the presence of the Ridge, and are related to the North Hawaiian Ridge Current of Mysak and Magaard.

Talley, LD.  1997.  North Pacific intermediate water transports in the mixed water region. Journal of Physical Oceanography. 27:1795-1803.   10.1175/1520-0485(1997)027<1795:npiwti>2.0.co;2   AbstractWebsite

Initial mixing between the subtropical and subpolar waters of Kuroshio and Oyashio origin occurs in the mixed water region (interfrontal zone) between the Kuroshio and Oyashio. The relatively fresh water that enters the Kuroshio Extension from the Mixed Water Region is this already mixed subtropical transition water. Subtropical transition water in the density range 26.64-27.4 sigma(theta) can be considered to be the newest North Pacific Intermediate Water (NPIW) in the subtropical gyre; this density range is approximately that which is ventilated in the subpolar gyre with significant influence from the Okhotsk Sea. Freshening of the Kuroshio Extension core occurs between 140 degrees and 165 degrees E in the upper part of the NPIW (26.64-27.0 sigma(theta)), with the greatest freshening associated with the eastern side of the first and second Kuroshio meanders. Kuroshio Extension freshening in the lower part of the NPIW (27.0-27.4 sigma(theta)) occurs more gradually and farther to the east. There is nearly no distinction in water properties north and south of the Kuroshio Extension by 175 degrees W. The upper part of the NPIW in the Mixed Water Region progresses from very intrusive and including much freshwater in the west, to much smoother and more saline water in the east. The lower part of the NPIW in the mixed water region progresses from very intrusive and fresh in the far west, to noisy and more saline at 152 degrees E, to smooth and fresher in the east. These suggest a difference between the two layers in both advection direction and possibly transport across the Subarctic Front. Assuming that all waters in the region are an isopycnal mixture of subtropical and subpolar water, the zonal transport of subpolar water in the subtropical gyre at 152 degrees E is estimated at about 3 Sv (Sv = 10(6) m(3) s(-1)). This could be approximately one-quarter of the Oyashio transport in this density range.

Talley, LD, Fryer G, Lumpkin R.  2013.  Oceanography. The Pacific Islands: Environment and Society. ( Rapaport M, Ed.)., Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press
Talley, LD, Nagata Y.  1995.  PICES Working Group I: Review of the Okhotsk Sea and Oyashio Region. PICES Scientific Report. 2:227.: North Pacific Marine Science Organization (PICES) Abstract
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Talley, LD, Joyce TM.  1992.  The Double Silica Maximum in the North Pacific. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans. 97:5465-5480.   10.1029/92jc00037   AbstractWebsite

The North Pacific has two vertical silica maxima. The well-known intermediate maximum occurs between 2000 and 2500 m with a potential density relative to 2000 dbar of 36.90 in the northeastern Pacific. The deep maximum, which has not been observed extensively before, is found at or near the ocean bottom in the northern North Pacific in a narrow latitude range. Maps of silica on isopycnals which intersect the intermediate and bottom maxima show that the lowest silica is found in the western tropical North Pacific, suggesting a route for the spread of South Pacific water into the deep North Pacific. Low-silica water is found along the western boundary of the North Pacific, with a separate broad tongue south of Hawaii. The highest silica on both isopycnals is in the northeast Pacific. A bottom maximum in the Cascadia Basin in the northeastern Pacific can be differentiated from both open-ocean maxima. Four sources for the vertical maxima are considered: in situ dissolution of sinking panicles, bottom sediment dissolution, hydrothermal venting, and upslope advection in the northeastern Pacific. Because not enough is known about any of these sources, only rough estimates of their contributions can be made. The bottom maximum is most likely to result from bottom sediment dissolution but requires a flux larger than some current direct estimates. The Cascadia Basin bottom maximum may result from both bottom sediment dissolution and hydrothermal venting. The intermediate maximum is likely to result primarily from dissolution of sinking particles. There is no quantitative estimate of the effect of possible upslope advection or enhancement of bottom fluxes due to the Columbia River outflow.

Talley, LD.  1999.  Some aspects of ocean heat transport by the shallow, intermediate and deep overturning circulations. Mechanisms of global climate change at millennial time scales. ( Clark PU, Webb RS, Keigwin LD, Eds.).:1-22., Washington, DC: American Geophysical Union Abstract
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Talley, LD.  1984.  Meridional Heat-Transport in the Pacific-Ocean. Journal of Physical Oceanography. 14:231-241.   10.1175/1520-0485(1984)014<0231:mhtitp>2.0.co;2   AbstractWebsite

The heat transported meridionally in the Pacific Ocean is calculated from the surface heat budgets of Clark and Weare and others; both budgets were based on Bunker's method with different radiation formulas. The meridional heat transport is also calculated from the surface heat budget of Esbensen and Kushnir, who used Budyko's method. The heat transport is southward at most latitudes if the numbers of Clark and of Weare are used. It is northward in the North Pacific and southward in the South Pacific if Eshensen and Kushnir's numbers are used. Systematic errors in both calculations appear to be so large that confident determination of even the sign of the heat transport in the North Pacific is not possible. The amount of heat transported poleward by all oceans is obtained from the Pacific Ocean calculation and transports in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans based on Bunker's surface heat fluxes.