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Gordon, AL, Giulivi CF, Lee CM, Furey HH, Bower A, Talley L.  2002.  Japan/East Sea intrathermocline eddies. Journal of Physical Oceanography. 32:1960-1974.   10.1175/1520-0485(2002)032<1960:jesie>;2   AbstractWebsite

Intrathermocline eddies (ITE) with diameters of 100 km and of thickness greater than 100 m are observed within each of the three quasi-stationary meanders of the Tsushima Current of the Japan/East Sea. Within the ITE homogenous, anticyclonic flowing core, the temperature is near 10degreesC with a salinity of 34.12 psu. Because of compensatory baroclinicity of the upper and lower boundaries of the ITE core, the ITE has minor sea level expression. The ITE core displays positive oxygen and negative salinity anomalies in comparison to the surrounding thermocline water, indicative of formation from winter mixed layer water along the southern side of the Japan/East Sea subpolar front. The winter mixing layer is then overridden, or slips below, the regional upper thermocline stratification with its characteristic salinity maximum layer. The winter mixed layer off the coast of Korea closely matches the ITE core characteristics, and is considered as a potential source region. Other sources may be present along the southern boundary of the subpolar front, including a frequently observed warm eddy over the western side of Yamato Rise.

Talley, LD, Min DH, Lobanov VB, Luchin VA, Ponomarev VI, Salyuk AN, Shcherbina AY, Tishchenko PY, Zhabin I.  2006.  Japan/East Sea water masses and their relation to the sea's circulation. Oceanography. 19:32-49.   10.5670/oceanog.2006.42   Abstract

The Japan/East Sea is a major anomaly in the ventilation and overturn picture of the Pacific Ocean. The North Pacific is well known to be nearly unventilated at intermediate and abyssal depths, reflected in low oxygen concentration at 1000 m (Figure 1). (High oxygen indicates newer water in more recent contact with the atmosphere. Oxygen declines as water "ages" after it leaves the sea surface mainly because of bacterial respiration.) Even the small production of North Pacific Intermediate Water in the Okhotsk Sea (Talley, 1991; Shcherbina et al., 2003) and the tiny amount of new bottom water encountered in the deep Bering Sea (Warner and Roden, 1995) have no obvious impact on the overall oxygen distribution at 1000 m and below, down to 3500 m, which is the approximate maximum depth of the Bering, Okhotsk, and Japan/East Seas.