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Talley, LD, Joyce TM.  1992.  The Double Silica Maximum in the North Pacific. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans. 97:5465-5480.   10.1029/92jc00037   AbstractWebsite

The North Pacific has two vertical silica maxima. The well-known intermediate maximum occurs between 2000 and 2500 m with a potential density relative to 2000 dbar of 36.90 in the northeastern Pacific. The deep maximum, which has not been observed extensively before, is found at or near the ocean bottom in the northern North Pacific in a narrow latitude range. Maps of silica on isopycnals which intersect the intermediate and bottom maxima show that the lowest silica is found in the western tropical North Pacific, suggesting a route for the spread of South Pacific water into the deep North Pacific. Low-silica water is found along the western boundary of the North Pacific, with a separate broad tongue south of Hawaii. The highest silica on both isopycnals is in the northeast Pacific. A bottom maximum in the Cascadia Basin in the northeastern Pacific can be differentiated from both open-ocean maxima. Four sources for the vertical maxima are considered: in situ dissolution of sinking panicles, bottom sediment dissolution, hydrothermal venting, and upslope advection in the northeastern Pacific. Because not enough is known about any of these sources, only rough estimates of their contributions can be made. The bottom maximum is most likely to result from bottom sediment dissolution but requires a flux larger than some current direct estimates. The Cascadia Basin bottom maximum may result from both bottom sediment dissolution and hydrothermal venting. The intermediate maximum is likely to result primarily from dissolution of sinking particles. There is no quantitative estimate of the effect of possible upslope advection or enhancement of bottom fluxes due to the Columbia River outflow.

Gladyshev, S, Talley L, Kantakov G, Khen G, Wakatsuchi M.  2003.  Distribution, formation, and seasonal variability of Okhotsk Sea Mode Water. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans. 108   10.1029/2001jc000877   AbstractWebsite

Russian historical data and recently completed conductivity-temperature-depth surveys are used to examine the formation and spread in the deep Ohkotsk Sea of dense shelf water (DSW) produced in the Okhotsk Sea polynyas. Isopycnal analysis indicates that all of the main polynyas contribute to the ventilation at sigma(theta) < 26.80, including the Okhotsk Sea Mode Water (OSMW), which has densities σ(θ) = 26.7-27.0. At densities greater than 26.9 σ(θ) the northwest polynya is the only contributor to OSMW. (Although Shelikhov Bay polynyas produce the densest water with σ(θ) > 27.1, vigorous tidal mixing leads to outflow of water with a density of only about 26.7 sigma(theta)). In the western Okhotsk Sea the East Sakhalin Current rapidly transports modified dense shelf water along the eastern Sakhalin slope to the Kuril Basin, where it is subject to further mixing because of the large anticyclonic eddies and tides. Most of the dense water flows off the shelves in spring. Their average flux does not exceed 0.2 Sv in summer and fall. The shelf water transport and water exchange with the North Pacific cause large seasonal variations of temperature at densities of 26.7-27.0 sigma(theta) (depths of 150-500 m) in the Kuril Basin, where the average temperature minimum occurs in April-May, and the average temperature maximum occurs in September, with a range of 0.2degrees-0.7degreesC. The average seasonal variations of salinity are quite small and do not exceed 0.05 psu. The Soya Water mixed by winter convection, penetrating to depths greater than 200 m, in the southern Kuril Basin also produces freezing water with density greater than 26.7 sigma(theta). Using a simple isopycnal box model and seasonal observations, the OSMW production rate is seen to increase in summer up to 2.2 +/- 1.7 Sv, mainly because of increased North Pacific inflow, and drops in winter to 0.2 +/- 0.1 Sv. A compensating decrease in temperature in the Kuril Basin implies a DSW volume transport of 1.4 +/- 1.1 Sv from February through May. The residence time of the OSMW in the Kuril Basin is 2 +/- 1.7 years.

Talley, LD.  1993.  Distribution and Formation of North Pacific Intermediate Water. Journal of Physical Oceanography. 23:517-537.   10.1175/1520-0485(1993)023<0517:dafonp>2.0.co;2   AbstractWebsite

The North Pacific Intermediate Water (NPIW), defined as the main salinity minimum in the subtropical North Pacific, is examined with respect to its overall property distributions. These suggest that NPIW is formed only in the northwestern subtropical gyre; that is, in the mixed water region between the Kuroshio Extension and Oyashio front. Subsequent modification along its advective path increases its salinity and reduces its oxygen. The mixed water region is studied using all bottle data available from the National Oceanographic Data Center, with particular emphasis on several winters. Waters from the Oyashio, Kuroshio, and the Tsugaru Warm Current influence the mixed water region, with a well-defined local surface water mass formed as a mixture of the surface waters from these three sources. Significant salinity minima in the mixed water region are grouped into those that are directly related to the winter surface density and are found at the base of the oxygen-saturated surface layer, and those that form deeper, around warm core rings. Both could be a source of the more uniform NPIW to the east, the former through preferential erosion of the minima from the top and the latter through simple advection. Both sources could exist all year with a narrowly defined density range that depends on winter mixed-layer density in the Oyashio region.

Talley, LD, McCartney MS.  1982.  Distribution and Circulation of Labrador Sea-Water. Journal of Physical Oceanography. 12:1189-1205.   10.1175/1520-0485(1982)012<1189:dacols>2.0.co;2   AbstractWebsite

Labrador Sea Water is the final product of the cyclonic circulation of Subpolar Mode Water in the open northern North Atlantic (McCartney and Talley, 1982). The temperature and salinity of the convectively formed Subpolar Mode Water decrease from 14.7°C, 36.08‰ to 3.4°C, 34.88‰ on account of the cumulative effects of excess precipitation and cooling. The coldest Mode Water is Labrador Sea Water, which spreads at mid-depths and is found throughout the North Atlantic Ocean north of 40°N and along its western boundary to 18°N.A vertical minimum in potential vorticity is used as the primary tracer for Labrador Sea Water. Labrador Sea Water is advected in three main directions out of the Labrador Sea: 1) northeastward into the Irminger Sea, 2) southeastward across the Atlantic beneath the North Atlantic current, and 3) southward past Newfoundland with the Labrador Current and thence westward into the Slope Water region, crossing under the Gulf Stream off Cape Hatteras.The Labrador Sea Water core is nearly coincident with an isopycnal which also intersects the lower part of the Mediterranean Water, whose high salinity and high potential vorticity balance the low salinity and low potential vorticity of the Labrador Sea Water. Nearly isopycnal mixing between them produces the upper part of the North Atlantic Deep Water.A 27-year data set from the Labrador Sea at Ocean Weather Station Bravo shows decade-long changes in the temperature, salinity, density and formation rate of Labrador Sea Water, indicating that Labrador Sea Water property distributions away from the Labrador Sea are in part due to changes in the source.

Shcherbina, AY, Talley LD, Rudnick DL.  2003.  Direct observations of North Pacific ventilation: Brine rejection in the Okhotsk Sea. Science. 302:1952-1955.   10.1126/science.1088692   AbstractWebsite

Brine rejection that accompanies ice formation in coastal polynyas is responsible for ventilating several globally important water masses in the Arctic and Antarctic. However, most previous studies of this process have been indirect, based on heat budget analyses or on warm-season water column inventories. Here, we present direct measurements of brine rejection and formation of North Pacific Intermediate Water in the Okhotsk Sea from moored winter observations. A steady, nearly linear salinity increase unambiguously caused by local ice formation was observed for more than a month.

Talley, LD, Pickard GL, Emery WJ, Swift JH.  2011.  Descriptive physical oceanography : an introduction. :viii,555p.,60p.ofplates., Amsterdam ; Boston: Academic Press Abstract

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Shcherbina, AY, Talley LD, Rudnick DL.  2004.  Dense water formation on the northwestern shelf of the Okhotsk Sea: 2. Quantifying the transports. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans. 109   10.1029/2003jc002197   AbstractWebsite

A combination of direct bottom mooring measurements, hydrographic and satellite observations, and meteorological reanalysis was used to estimate the rate of formation of Dense Shelf Water (DSW) due to brine rejection on the Okhotsk Sea northwestern shelf and the rate of export of DSW from this region. On the basis of remote sensing data, an estimated 8.6x10(12) m(3) of DSW was formed during the winter of 1999-2000, resulting in a mean annual production rate of 0.3 Sv. According to direct observations, the export rate of DSW during this period varied from negligibly small in autumn to 0.75+/-0.27 Sv in winter (January-February), to 0.34+/-0.12 Sv in spring (March-April). From these observations the mean annual export rate can be estimated to be 0.27 Sv. The same relationships used to obtain the integral estimates were also applied differentially using an advective approach incorporating realistic flow and heat flux fields, which allowed direct comparison with the moored observations. The comparison highlights the importance of along-shelf advection and cross-shelf eddy transport to the accurate parameterization of DSW formation.

Shcherbina, AY, Talley LD, Rudnick DL.  2004.  Dense water formation on the northwestern shelf of the Okhotsk Sea: 1. Direct observations of brine rejection. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans. 109   10.1029/2003jc002196   AbstractWebsite

[1] Dense Shelf Water (DSW) formation due to brine rejection in the coastal polynya on the northwestern shelf of the Okhotsk Sea was studied using two bottom moorings during the winter of 1999 - 2000. A steady salinity and density increase that continued for over a month was observed at the shallower mooring. The maximum density of sigma(theta) = 26.92 kg m(-3) was reached during this period. The density increase terminated abruptly in late February, while the active brine rejection continued for several more weeks based on indirect evidence from water properties and ice cover. This termination was possibly due to the onset of baroclinic instability of the density front at the polynya edge facilitating offshore eddy transport of the density anomaly. Observed periodic baroclinic tide intensification events are hypothesized to be an indicator of the presence of such baroclinic eddies. No significant density increase was observed at the deeper, offshore mooring, indicating a robust demarcation of the offshore extent of newly formed DSW. The relatively fresh water of the tidally mixed zone inshore of the shelf front was the precursor of the DSW, aided by the late-autumn offshore transition of the front.

Talley, LD, Johnson GC.  1994.  Deep, Zonal Subequatorial Currents. Science. 263:1125-1128.   10.1126/science.263.5150.1125   AbstractWebsite

Large-scale, westward-extending tongues of warm (Pacific) and cold (Atlantic) water are found between 2000 and 3000 meters both north and south of the equator in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. They are centered at 5-degrees to 8-degrees north and 10-degrees to 15-degrees south (Pacific) and 5-degrees to 8-degrees north and 15-degrees to 20-degrees south (Atlantic). They are separated in both oceans by a contrasting eastward-extending tongue, centered at about 1-degrees to 2-degrees south, in agreement with previous helium isotope observations (Pacific). Thus, the indicated deep tropical westward flows north and south of the equator and eastward flow near the equator may result from more general forcing than the hydrothermal forcing previously hypothesized.

McCarthy, MC, Talley LD, Baringer MO.  1997.  Deep upwelling and diffusivity in the southern Central Indian Basin. Geophysical Research Letters. 24:2801-2804.   10.1029/97gl02112   AbstractWebsite

Transport of the deepest water westward through a gap at 28 degrees S in the Ninetyeast Ridge between the Central Indian Basin and the West Australia Basin is calculated from hydrographic data collected as part of WOCE Hydrographic Program section I8N. Zero reference velocity levels at mid-depth were chosen through consideration of water masses. The small transport of 1.0 Sv westward of water denser than sigma(4) = 45.92 kg m(-3) through the gap must all upwell in the southern Central Indian Basin. Of this, 0.7 Sv upwells between the central and western sill sections, that is, close to the sill itself. Using the areas covered by the isopycnal, we calculate an average vertical velocity of 3.3 . 10(-3) cm s(-1) close to the sill and of 4.2 . 10(-4) cm s(-1) west of the sill. Associated average vertical diffusivities are 105 cm(2) s(-1) close to the sill and 13 cm(2) s(-1) west of the sill, in this bottom layer.

Johnson, GC, Talley LD.  1997.  Deep tracer and dynamical plumes in the tropical Pacific Ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans. 102:24953-24964.   10.1029/97jc01913   AbstractWebsite

Anomalous middepth plumes in potential temperature-salinity, theta-S, and buoyancy frequency squared, N-2, Originate east of the East Pacific Rise Crest and decay toward the west. Conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) data from recent hydrographic sections at 15 degrees S and 10 degrees N are used together with meridional sections at 110 degrees, 135 degrees, and 151 degrees W to map these structures. Warm salty plumes west of the rise crest have maxima centered at 2700 m, 10 degrees S and 8 degrees N, and are interrupted by a cold, fresh tongue centered at 2900 m, 2 degrees S. The theta-S anomalies decay to half their peak strength 2800 km to the west of the rise crest, +/-300 km in the meridional, and +/-0.4 km in the vertical. Vertical N-2 minima occur within the plumes, regions of reduced vertical gradients in theta and S. These minima are underlain by maxima near the depth of the rise crest, about 3200 m. The N-2 plumes decay more rapidly to the west of the rise crest than do the theta-S plumes. The N-2 structure is consistent with a pair of stacked gyres in each hemisphere. There are at least three possible mechanisms consistent with some aspects of these features. First, a deep maximum in upwelling somewhere below 2700 m would result in equatorvard and westward interior flow at 2700 m. advecting these plumes along with it. Second, rapid upwelling of warm, salty, unstratified water in the eastern basins could result in westward overflows over the rise crest. Third, upwelling and associated entrainment processes owing to hydrothermal venting could result in stacked counter-rotating gyres west of the rise crest.

Talley, LD, Sprintall J.  2005.  Deep expression of the Indonesian Throughflow: Indonesian Intermediate Water in the South Equatorial Current. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans. 110   10.1029/2004jc002826   AbstractWebsite

[1] The narrow westward flow of the South Equatorial Current ( SEC), centered at 12 degrees S and carrying freshened water from the Indonesian seas, is traced across the Indian Ocean using data from the World Ocean Circulation Experiment. The jet is remarkably zonal and quasi-barotropic, following the potential vorticity contours characteristic of the tropics, separating higher-oxygen and lower-nutrient waters of the subtropics from the oxygen-depleted waters of the tropics. The fresh surface waters are the usual Indonesian Throughflow Water reported previously. Less well studied is the intermediate-depth SEC carrying fresher water from the Banda Sea and Pacific, known as Indonesian Intermediate Water (IIW) or Banda Sea Intermediate Water. The high-silica signature of IIW is documented here, permitting us to ( 1) trace the spread of IIW from sill density at Leti Strait to higher density as it is diluted toward the west and ( 2) define an IIW core for transport estimates, of 3 to 7 Sv westward, using geostrophic and LADCP velocities. The high IIW silica is traced to the Banda Sea, arising from known diapycnal mixing of Pacific waters entering through Lifamatola Strait and local sources. New heat, freshwater, oxygen, and silica budgets within the Indonesian seas suggest at least 3 Sv of inflow through the relatively deep Lifamatola Strait, supplementing the observed 9 Sv through the shallower Makassar Strait. Both shallow and deep inflows and outflows, along with vigorous mixing and internal sources within the Indonesian seas, are required to capture the transformation of Pacific to Indonesian Throughflow waters.

Tamsitt, V, Talley LD, Mazloff MR.  2019.  A deep eastern boundary current carrying Indian deep water south of Australia. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans. 124:2218-2238.   10.1029/2018jc014569   Abstract

In the Southern Hemisphere, the ocean's deep waters are predominantly transported from low to high latitudes via boundary currents. In addition to the Deep Western Boundary Currents, pathways along the eastern boundaries of the southern Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific transport deep water poleward into the Southern Ocean where these waters upwell to the sea surface. These deep eastern boundary currents and their physical drivers are not well characterized, particularly those carrying carbon and nutrient-rich deep waters from the Indian and Pacific basins. Here we describe the poleward deep eastern boundary current that carries Indian Deep Water along the southern boundary of Australia to the Southern Ocean using a combination of hydrographic observations and Lagrangian experiments in an eddy-permitting ocean state estimate. We find strong evidence for a deep boundary current carrying the low-oxygen, carbon-rich signature of Indian Deep Water extending between 1,500 and 3,000 m along the Australian continental slope, from 30°S to the Antarctic Circumpolar Current southwest of Tasmania. From the Lagrangian particles it is estimated that this pathway transports approximately 5.8 ± 1.3 Sv southward from 30°S to the northern boundary of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. The volume transport of this pathway is highly variable and is closely correlated with the overlying westward volume transport of the Flinders Current.

Talley, LD, Lobanov V, Ponomarev V, Salyuk A, Tishchenko P, Zhabin I, Riser S.  2003.  Deep convection and brine rejection in the Japan Sea. Geophysical Research Letters. 30   10.1029/2002gl016451   AbstractWebsite

Direct water mass renewal through convection deeper than 1000 m and the independent process of dense water production through brine rejection during sea ice formation occur at only a limited number of sites globally. Our late winter observations in 2000 and 2001 show that the Japan (East) Sea is a part of both exclusive groups. Japan Sea deep convection apparently occurs every winter, but massive renewal of bottom waters through brine rejection had not occurred for many decades prior to the extremely cold winter of 2001. The sites for both renewal mechanisms are south of Vladivostok, in the path of cold continental air outbreaks.

Talley, LD, Reid JL, Robbins PE.  2003.  Data-based meridional overturning streamfunctions for the global ocean. Journal of Climate. 16:3213-3226.   10.1175/1520-0442(2003)016<3213:dmosft>2.0.co;2   AbstractWebsite

The meridional overturning circulation for the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans is computed from absolute geostrophic velocity estimates based on hydrographic data and from climatological Ekman transports. The Atlantic overturn includes the expected North Atlantic Deep Water formation ( including Labrador Sea Water and Nordic Sea Overflow Water), with an amplitude of about 18 Sv through most of the Atlantic and an error of the order of 3 - 5 Sv (1 Sv = 10(6) m(3) s(-1)). The Lower Circumpolar Deep Water ( Antarctic Bottom Water) flows north with about 8 Sv of upwelling and a southward return in the South Atlantic, and 6 Sv extending to and upwelling in the North Atlantic. The northward flow of 8 Sv in the upper layer in the Atlantic ( sea surface through the Antarctic Intermediate Water) is transformed to lower density in the Tropics before losing buoyancy in the Gulf Stream and North Atlantic Current. The Pacific overturning streamfunction includes 10 Sv of Lower Circumpolar Deep Water flowing north into the South Pacific to upwell and return southward as Pacific Deep Water, and a North Pacific Intermediate Water cell of 2 Sv. The northern North Pacific has no active deep water formation at the sea surface, but in this analysis there is downwelling from the Antarctic Intermediate Water into the Pacific Deep Water, with upwelling in the Tropics. For global Southern Hemisphere overturn across 30degreesS, the overturning is separated into a deep and a shallow overturning cell. In the deep cell, 22 - 27 Sv of deep water flows southward and returns northward as bottom water. In the shallow cell, 9 Sv flows southward at low density and returns northward just above the intermediate water density. In all three oceans, the Tropics appear to dominate upwelling across isopycnals, including the migration of the deepest waters upward to the thermocline in the Indian and Pacific. Estimated diffusivities associated with this tropical upwelling are the same order of magnitude in all three oceans. It is shown that vertically varying diffusivity associated with topography can produce deep downwelling in the absence of external buoyancy loss. The rate of such downwelling for the northern North Pacific is estimated as 2 Sv at most, which is smaller than the questionable downwelling derived from the velocity analysis.