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Yuan, XJ, Talley LD.  1992.  Shallow Salinity Minima in the North Pacific. Journal of Physical Oceanography. 22:1302-1316.   10.1175/1520-0485(1992)022<1302:ssmitn>2.0.co;2   AbstractWebsite

CTD/STD data from 24 cruises in the North Pacific are studied for their vertical salinity structure and compared to bottle observations. A triple-salinity minimum is found in two separated regions in the eastern North Pacific. In the first region, bounded by the northern edge of the subarctic frontal zone and the 34-degrees-N front between 160-degrees and 150-degrees-W, a middle salinity minimum is found below the permanent pycnocline in the density range of 26.0 and 26.5 sigma(theta). This middle minimum underlies Reid's shallow salinity minimum and overlies the North Pacific Intermediate Water (NPIW). In the second region, southeast of the first, a seasonal salinity minimum appears above the shallow salinity minimum at densities lower than 25.1 sigma(theta). The shallow salinity minimum and the NPIW can be found throughout year, while the seasonal minimum only appears in summer and fall. The middle and shallow salinity minima, as well as the seasonal minimum, originate at the sea surface in the northeast Pacific. The properties at the minima depend on the surface conditions in their source areas. The source of the middle minimum is the winter surface water in a narrow band between the gyre boundary and the subarctic front west of 170-degrees-W. The shallow salinity minimum is generated in winter and is present throughout the year. The seasonal salinity minimum has the same source area as the shallow salinity minimum but is formed in summer and fall at lower density and is not present in winter. A tropical shallow salinity minimum found south of 18-degrees-N does not appear to be connected with the shallow salinity minimum in the eastern North Pacific. South of 20-degrees-N, the shallow salinity minimum and the NPIW appear to merge into a thick, low salinity water mass. When an intrusion of high salinity water breaks through this low salinity water mass south of 18-degrees-N, this tropical salinity minimum appears at the same density as the shallow salinity minimum. Though the water mass of the tropical minimum is derived from the water in the shallow salinity minimum, the formation of the vertical minimum is different.

Yuan, XJ, Talley LD.  1996.  The subarctic frontal zone in the North Pacific: Characteristics of frontal structure from climatological data and synoptic surveys. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans. 101:16491-16508.   10.1029/96jc01249   AbstractWebsite

The subarctic front is a thermohaline structure across the North Pacific, separating colder, fresher water to the north from warmer, saltier water to the south. Levitus's [1982] data and 72 conductivity-temperature-depth/salinity-temperature-depth sections are used to show the spatial and seasonal variations of the climatological frontal zone and the characteristics of the frontal structure in synoptic surveys. The temperature gradient in the mean frontal zone is stronger in the western Pacific and decreases eastward, while the salinity gradient has less variation across the Pacific. The temperature gradient also has larger seasonal variation, with a maximum in spring, than the salinity gradient. The synoptic surveys show that the frontal zone is narrower and individual fronts tend to be stronger in the western Pacific than in the eastern Pacific. Density gradients tend to be more compensated at the strongest salinity fronts than at the strongest temperature fronts. A horizontal minimum of vertical stability is found south of the subarctic halocline outcrop. The northern boundary of the North Pacific Intermediate Water merges with the frontal zone west of 175 degrees W and is north of the northern boundary of the subarctic frontal zone in the eastern Pacific. The shallow salinity minima start within the subarctic frontal zone in the eastern Pacific.

Yun, JY, Talley LD.  2003.  Cabbeling and the density of the North Pacific Intermediate Water quantified by an inverse method. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans. 108   10.1029/2002jc001482   AbstractWebsite

North Pacific Intermediate Water (NPIW), defined as the main salinity minimum in the subtropical North Pacific, at a density of 26.7-26.8sigma(theta), is denser than the winter surface water in the Oyashio which is the source of the salinity minimum. We showed previously that cabbeling and double diffusion during mixing between the Oyashio water and more saline Kuroshio water can account for the density increase from the surface source water to the salinity minimum. An inverse method is employed herein to quantify the effect of cabbeling, using CTD data from the western North Pacific. The difference between proportional mixing between parcels of Oyashio and Kuroshio waters and mixing along isopycnals is exploited to compute the convergence of water into density layers. The diapycnal transport convergence associated with cabbeling into the NPIW density layer is estimated to be 0.56 Sv for an assumed turnover time of 1 year in the region between 142degreesE and 152degreesE. Diapycnal transport convergences in the regions 152degreesE-165degreesE, 165degreesE-175degreesW, and 175degreesW-136degreesW are similarly estimated by assuming longer turnover times. We estimate that the total diapycnal transport convergence into the NPIW density layer may be up to 2.3 Sv in the entire NPIW region.