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Park, GH, Lee K, Tishchenko P, Min DH, Warner MJ, Talley LD, Kang DJ, Kim KR.  2006.  Large accumulation of anthropogenic CO(2) in the East (Japan) Sea and its significant impact on carbonate chemistry. Global Biogeochemical Cycles. 20   10.1029/2005gb002676   AbstractWebsite

[ 1] This paper reports on a basin-wide inventory of anthropogenic CO(2) in the East ( Japan) Sea determined from high-quality alkalinity, chlorofluorocarbon, and nutrient data collected during a summertime survey in 1999 and total dissolved inorganic carbon data calculated from pH and alkalinity measurements. The data set comprises measurements from 203 hydrographic stations and covers most of the East Sea with the exception of the northwestern boundary region. Anthropogenic CO(2) concentrations are estimated by separating this value from total dissolved inorganic carbon using a tracer-based ( chlorofluorocarbon) separation technique. Wintertime surface CFC-12 data collected in regions of deep water formation off Vladivostok, Russia, improve the accuracy of estimates of anthropogenic CO(2) concentrations by providing improved air-sea CO(2) disequilibrium values for intermediate and deep waters. Our calculation yields a total anthropogenic CO(2) inventory in the East Sea of 0.40 +/- 0.06 petagrams of carbon as of 1999. Anthropogenic CO(2) has already reached the bottom of the East Sea, largely owing to the effective transport of anthropogenic CO(2) from the surface to the ocean interior via deep water formation in the waters off Vladivostok. The highest specific column inventory ( vertically integrated inventory per square meter) of anthropogenic CO(2) of 80 mol C m(-2) is found in the Japan Basin ( 40 degrees N - 44 degrees N). Comparison of this inventory with those for other major basins of the same latitude band reveal that the East Sea values are much higher than the inventory for the Pacific Ocean (20 - 30 mol C m(-2)) and are similar to the inventory for the North Atlantic (66 - 72 mol C m(-2)). The substantial accumulation of anthropogenic CO(2) in the East Sea during the industrial era has caused the aragonite and calcite saturation horizons to move upward by 80 - 220 m and 500 - 700 m, respectively. These upward movements are approximately 5 times greater than those found in the North Pacific. Both the large accumulation of anthropogenic CO(2) and its significant impact on carbonate chemistry in the East Sea suggest that this sea is an important site for monitoring the future impact of the oceanic invasion of anthropogenic CO(2).

Feely, RA, Talley LD, Johnson GC, Sabine CL, Wanninkhof R.  2005.  Repeat hydrography cruises reveal chemical changes in the North Atlantic. Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union. 86:399,404-405. Abstract
Fukamachi, Y, Mizuta G, Ohshima KI, Talley LD, Riser SC, Wakatsuchi M.  2004.  Transport and modification processes of dense shelf water revealed by long-term moorings off Sakhalin in the Sea of Okhotsk. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans. 109   10.1029/2003jc001906   AbstractWebsite

The region off the east coast of Sakhalin is thought of as an important pathway of dense shelf water (DSW) from its production region in the northwestern Okhotsk Sea to the southern Okhotsk Sea. From July 1998 to June 2000, the first long-term mooring experiment was carried out in this region to observe the southward flowing East Sakhalin Current (ESC) and DSW. Moored and associated hydrographic data show considerable modification of cold dense water via mixing with warm offshore water in the slope region off northern Sakhalin. Significant onshore eddy heat flux was observed at the northernmost mooring (54.9degreesN), which suggests the occurrence of baroclinic instability. The eddy heat flux was not significant farther south. At moorings along 53degreesN, cold anticyclonic eddies were identified that were consistent with isolated eddies seen in the hydrographic data. The three years of hydrographic data also showed large differences in extent and properties of DSW. Furthermore, the mooring data show that seasonal variability of DSW was quite different in the two years. The average DSW transport for sigma(theta) > 26.7 evaluated using the moored data at 53degreesN for 1 year (1998-1999) was similar to0.21 Sv (= 10(6) m(3) s(-1)). This value is at the lower end of the previous indirect estimates. Along with the DSW modification, this transport estimate indicates that DSW was not only carried southward by the ESC but was spread offshore by eddies off northern Sakhalin.

Talley, LD, Tishchenko P, Luchin V, Nedashkovskiy A, Sagalaev S, Kang DJ, Warner M, Min DH.  2004.  Atlas of Japan (East) Sea hydrographic properties in summer, 1999. Progress in Oceanography. 61:277-348.   10.1016/j.pocean.2004.06.011   AbstractWebsite

Hydrographic properties from CTD and discrete bottle sample profiles covering the Japan (East) Sea in summer, 1999, are presented in vertical sections, maps at standard depths, maps on isopycnal surfaces, and as property-property distributions. This data set covers most of the Sea with the exception of the western boundary region and northern Tatar Strait, and includes nutrients, pH, alkalinity, and chlorofluorocarbons, as well as the usual temperature, salinity, and oxygen observations. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Alley, RB, Marotzke J, Nordhaus WD, Overpeck JT, Peteet DM, Pielke RA, Pierrehumbert RT, Rhines PB, Stocker TF, Talley LD, Wallace JM.  2003.  Abrupt climate change. Science. 299:2005-2010.   10.1126/science.1081056   AbstractWebsite

Large, abrupt, and widespread climate changes with major impacts have occurred repeatedly in the past, when the Earth system was forced across thresholds. Although abrupt climate changes can occur for many reasons, it is conceivable that human forcing of climate change is increasing the probability of large, abrupt events. Were such an event to recur, the economic and ecological impacts could be large and potentially serious. Unpredictability exhibited near climate thresholds in simple models shows that some uncertainty will always be associated with projections. In light of these uncertainties, policy-makers should consider expanding research into abrupt climate change, improving monitoring systems, and taking actions designed to enhance the adaptability and resilience of ecosystems and economies.

Gladyshev, S, Talley L, Kantakov G, Khen G, Wakatsuchi M.  2003.  Distribution, formation, and seasonal variability of Okhotsk Sea Mode Water. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans. 108   10.1029/2001jc000877   AbstractWebsite

Russian historical data and recently completed conductivity-temperature-depth surveys are used to examine the formation and spread in the deep Ohkotsk Sea of dense shelf water (DSW) produced in the Okhotsk Sea polynyas. Isopycnal analysis indicates that all of the main polynyas contribute to the ventilation at sigma(theta) < 26.80, including the Okhotsk Sea Mode Water (OSMW), which has densities σ(θ) = 26.7-27.0. At densities greater than 26.9 σ(θ) the northwest polynya is the only contributor to OSMW. (Although Shelikhov Bay polynyas produce the densest water with σ(θ) > 27.1, vigorous tidal mixing leads to outflow of water with a density of only about 26.7 sigma(theta)). In the western Okhotsk Sea the East Sakhalin Current rapidly transports modified dense shelf water along the eastern Sakhalin slope to the Kuril Basin, where it is subject to further mixing because of the large anticyclonic eddies and tides. Most of the dense water flows off the shelves in spring. Their average flux does not exceed 0.2 Sv in summer and fall. The shelf water transport and water exchange with the North Pacific cause large seasonal variations of temperature at densities of 26.7-27.0 sigma(theta) (depths of 150-500 m) in the Kuril Basin, where the average temperature minimum occurs in April-May, and the average temperature maximum occurs in September, with a range of 0.2degrees-0.7degreesC. The average seasonal variations of salinity are quite small and do not exceed 0.05 psu. The Soya Water mixed by winter convection, penetrating to depths greater than 200 m, in the southern Kuril Basin also produces freezing water with density greater than 26.7 sigma(theta). Using a simple isopycnal box model and seasonal observations, the OSMW production rate is seen to increase in summer up to 2.2 +/- 1.7 Sv, mainly because of increased North Pacific inflow, and drops in winter to 0.2 +/- 0.1 Sv. A compensating decrease in temperature in the Kuril Basin implies a DSW volume transport of 1.4 +/- 1.1 Sv from February through May. The residence time of the OSMW in the Kuril Basin is 2 +/- 1.7 years.

Talley, LD.  1999.  Some aspects of ocean heat transport by the shallow, intermediate and deep overturning circulations. Mechanisms of global climate change at millennial time scales. ( Clark PU, Webb RS, Keigwin LD, Eds.).:1-22., Washington, DC: American Geophysical Union Abstract
Gordon, AL, Ma SB, Olson DB, Hacker P, Ffield A, Talley LD, Wilson D, Baringer M.  1997.  Advection and diffusion of Indonesian throughflow water within the Indian Ocean South Equatorial Current. Geophysical Research Letters. 24:2573-2576.   10.1029/97gl01061   AbstractWebsite

Warm, low salinity Pacific water weaves through the Indonesian Seas into the eastern boundary of the Indian Ocean. The Indonesian Throughflow Water (ITW) adds freshwater into the Indian Ocean as it spreads by the advection and diffusion within the Indian Ocean's South Equatorial Current (SEC). The low salinity throughflow trace, centered along 12 degrees S, stretches across the Indian Ocean, separating the monsoon dominated regime of the northern Indian Ocean from the more typical subtropical stratification to the south. ITW is well represented within the SEC thermocline, extending with concentrations above 80% of initial characteristics from the sea surface to 300-m within the eastern half of the Indian Ocean, with 60% concentration reaching well into the western Indian Ocean. The ITW transport within the SEC varies from 4 to 12 x 10(6) m(3)sec(-1), partly in response to variations of the injection rate at the eastern boundary and to the likelihood of a zonally elongated recirculation cell between the Equatorial Counter Current and the SEC within the Indian Ocean. Lateral mixing disperses the ITW plume meridionally with an effective isopycnal mixing coefficient of 1.1 to 1.6 x 10(4) m(2)sec(-1).

Talley, LD.  1996.  Antarctic Intermediate Water in the South Atlantic. The South Atlantic : present and past circulation. ( Wefer G, Berger WH, Siedler G, Webb D, Eds.).:219-238., Berlin ; New York: Springer Abstract
Talley, LD, White WB.  1987.  Estimates of Time and Space Scales at 300-Meters in the Midlatitude North Pacific from the Transpac-Xbt Program. Journal of Physical Oceanography. 17:2168-2188.   10.1175/1520-0485(1987)017<2168:eotass>;2   AbstractWebsite

Estimates of length and time scales of temperature variability at 300 meters in the midlatitude North Pacific are made. Data are XBT traces collected from 1976 to 1984 in the TRANSPAC Volunteer Observing Ship program. Temperatures at 300 meters are grouped in two-mouth bins and gridded using the Surface II mapping program.Temperature variance about the time mean is largest in the Kuroshio Extension and nearly constant in the eastern North Pacific. A cooling trend occurred in the eastern North Pacific over the eight years of the dataset. In the western Pacific, the annual cycle is most intense 1°–2° north of the Kuroshio Extension, with an indication of meridional propagation away from the region of most intense variability. Propagation of annual waves in the eastern Pacific was predominantly northwestward.Wavenumber and frequency spectra are computed from normalized temperatures with the mean and bimonthly average removed in order to eliminate the dominant annual cycle. Based on the overall temperature variance, the North Pacific was divided into western and eastern regions. Zonal wavenumber and frequency spectra and two-dimensional ω/k spectra were computed for a number of latitudes in the eastern and western regions. Two-dimensional k/l spectra were also computed for the western and eastern regions. The spectra indicate westward propagation throughout the midlatitude North Pacific with additional eastward propagation in the Kuroshio Extension region, shorter length and time scales in the Kuroshio Extension compared with other regions, and slight dominance of southwestward propagation in bath the eastern and western North Pacific.Tests to determine the effective spatial resolution of the dataset indicate that local average-station spacing is a good measure of local Nyquist wavelength. However, because of the nearly random sampling in a spatially limited region, an unresolved wave is aliased more or less in a band stretching towards low wavenumber rather than folded in coherent, predictable locations in the spectrum. With the choice of a two-month time bin, spectra are about equally aliased in space and time, with Nyquist wavelength and period close to the beginning of energy rolloff reported in other surveys, which have better spatial resolution but less degrees of freedom.

Joyce, TM, Warren BA, Talley LD.  1986.  The Geothermal Heating of the Abyssal Sub-Arctic Pacific-Ocean. Deep-Sea Research Part a-Oceanographic Research Papers. 33:1003-1015.   10.1016/0198-0149(86)90026-9   AbstractWebsite

Recent deep CTD-O2 measurements in the abyssal North Pacific along 175°W, 152°W, and 47°N indicate large-scale changes in the O-S characteristics in the deepest kilometer of the water column. Geothermal heat flux from the abyssal sediments can be invoked as the agent for causing large-scale modification of abyssal temperatures (but not salinities) in the subarctic Pacific Ocean. East-west and north-south thermal age differences of about 100 years are inferred using a spatially uniform geothermal heat flux of 5 x 10-2 WrmW m-2.