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Book
Talley, LD, Pickard GL, Emery WJ, Swift JH.  2011.  Descriptive physical oceanography : an introduction. :viii,555p.,60p.ofplates., Amsterdam ; Boston: Academic Press Abstract

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Talley, LD.  2007.  Hydrographic Atlas of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE). Volume 2: Pacific Ocean. ( Sparrow M, Chapman P, Gould J, Eds.)., Southampton, UK: International WOCE Project Office Abstract

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Talley, LD.  2013.  Hydrographic Atlas of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE). Volume 4: Indian Ocean. ( and M. Sparrow CPJ, Ed.)., Southampton, U.K.: International WOCE Project Office
Talley, LD, Nagata Y.  1995.  PICES Working Group I: Review of the Okhotsk Sea and Oyashio Region. PICES Scientific Report. 2:227.: North Pacific Marine Science Organization (PICES) Abstract
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Book Chapter
Talley, LD.  1996.  Antarctic Intermediate Water in the South Atlantic. The South Atlantic : present and past circulation. ( Wefer G, Berger WH, Siedler G, Webb D, Eds.).:219-238., Berlin ; New York: Springer Abstract
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Doney, SC, Ruckelshaus M, Duffy JE, Barry JP, Chan F, English CA, Galindo HM, Grebmeier JM, Hollowed AB, Knowlton N, Polovina J, Rabalais NN, Sydeman WJ, Talley LD.  2012.  Climate Change Impacts on Marine Ecosystems. Annual Review of Marine Science, Vol 4. 4( Carlson CA, Giovannoni SJ, Eds.).:11-37., Palo Alto: Annual Reviews   10.1146/annurev-marine-041911-111611   Abstract

In marine ecosystems, rising atmospheric CO2 and climate change are associated with concurrent shifts in temperature, circulation, stratification, nutrient input, oxygen content, and ocean acidification, with potentially wide-ranging biological effects. Population-level shifts are occurring because of physiological intolerance to new environments, altered dispersal patterns, and changes in species interactions. Together with local climate-driven invasion and extinction, these processes result in altered community structure and diversity, including possible emergence of novel ecosystems. Impacts are particularly striking for the poles and the tropics, because of the sensitivity of polar ecosystems to sea-ice retreat and poleward species migrations as well as the sensitivity of coral-algal symbiosis to minor increases in temperature. Midlatitude upwelling systems, like the California Current, exhibit strong linkages between climate and species distributions, phenology, and demography. Aggregated effects may modify energy and material flows as well as biogeochemical cycles, eventually impacting the overall ecosystem functioning and services upon which people and societies depend.

Billheimer, S, Talley LD.  2016.  Extraordinarily weak Eighteen Degree Water production concurs with strongly positive North Atlantic Oscillation in late winter 2014/15. State of the Climate in 2015. 97( Blunden J, Arndt DS, Eds.).:Si-S275.   10.1175/2016BAMSStateoftheClimate.1   Abstract

In summary, winter 2014/15 was the weakest EDWformation year on record during the Argo era and wasassociated with an extreme, strongly positive winterNAO. Three of the past four winters have had belowaverage EDW renewal, with the most recent being themost extreme.

Hanawa, K, Talley LD.  2001.  Mode Waters. Ocean circulation and climate : observing and modelling the global ocean. ( Siedler G, Church J, Gould WJ, Eds.).:373-386., San Diego, Calif. London: Academic Abstract
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Cronin, MF, Bond N, Booth J, Ichikawa H, Joyce TM, Kelly K, Kubota M, Qiu B, Reason C, Rouault M, Sabine C, Saino T, Small J, Suga T, Talley LD, Thompson LA, Weller RA.  2010.  Monitoring Ocean - Atmosphere Interactions in Western Boundary Current Extensions. Proceedings of OceanObs’09: Sustained Ocean Observations and Information for Society. 2( Hall J, Harrison DE, Stammer D, Eds.).   doi:10.5270/OceanObs09.cwp.20   Abstract
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Bindoff, NL, Willebrand J, Artale V, Cazenave A, Gregory J, Gulev S, Hanawa K, Le Quere C, Levitus S, Nojiri Y, Shum CK, Talley LD, Unnikrishnan A.  2007.  Observations: Oceanic Climate Change and Sea Level. Climate change 2007 : the physical science basis : contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. ( Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M, Chen Z, Marquis M, Avery KB, Tignor M, Miller H, Eds.).:387-432., Cambridge ; New York: Cambridge University Press Abstract
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Talley, LD, Fryer G, Lumpkin R.  2013.  Oceanography. The Pacific Islands: Environment and Society. ( Rapaport M, Ed.)., Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press
Talley, LD.  1996.  Physical oceanography. Encylopedia of Earth Sciences. :745-749., New York: MacMillan Publishing Abstract
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Talley, LD, Fryer G, Lumpkin R.  1998.  Physical oceanography of the tropical Pacific. Geography of the Pacific Islands. ( Rapaport M, Ed.).:19-32., Honolulu: Bess Press Abstract
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Talley, LD.  1999.  Some aspects of ocean heat transport by the shallow, intermediate and deep overturning circulations. Mechanisms of global climate change at millennial time scales. ( Clark PU, Webb RS, Keigwin LD, Eds.).:1-22., Washington, DC: American Geophysical Union Abstract
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Talley, L, Fine R, Lumpkin R, Maximenko N, Morrow R.  2010.  Surface Ventilation and Circulation. Proceedings of OceanObs’09: Sustained Ocean Observations and Information for Society. 1( Hall J, Harrison DE, Stammer D, Eds.).   10.5270/OceanObs09.pp.38   Abstract
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Talley, LD, Stammer D, Fukumori I.  2001.  The WOCE Synthesis. Ocean circulation and climate : observing and modelling the global ocean. ( Siedler G, Church J, Gould WJ, Eds.).:525-546., San Diego, Calif. London: Academic Abstract
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Journal Article
Alley, RB, Marotzke J, Nordhaus WD, Overpeck JT, Peteet DM, Pielke RA, Pierrehumbert RT, Rhines PB, Stocker TF, Talley LD, Wallace JM.  2003.  Abrupt climate change. Science. 299:2005-2010.   10.1126/science.1081056   AbstractWebsite

Large, abrupt, and widespread climate changes with major impacts have occurred repeatedly in the past, when the Earth system was forced across thresholds. Although abrupt climate changes can occur for many reasons, it is conceivable that human forcing of climate change is increasing the probability of large, abrupt events. Were such an event to recur, the economic and ecological impacts could be large and potentially serious. Unpredictability exhibited near climate thresholds in simple models shows that some uncertainty will always be associated with projections. In light of these uncertainties, policy-makers should consider expanding research into abrupt climate change, improving monitoring systems, and taking actions designed to enhance the adaptability and resilience of ecosystems and economies.

Gordon, AL, Ma SB, Olson DB, Hacker P, Ffield A, Talley LD, Wilson D, Baringer M.  1997.  Advection and diffusion of Indonesian throughflow water within the Indian Ocean South Equatorial Current. Geophysical Research Letters. 24:2573-2576.   10.1029/97gl01061   AbstractWebsite

Warm, low salinity Pacific water weaves through the Indonesian Seas into the eastern boundary of the Indian Ocean. The Indonesian Throughflow Water (ITW) adds freshwater into the Indian Ocean as it spreads by the advection and diffusion within the Indian Ocean's South Equatorial Current (SEC). The low salinity throughflow trace, centered along 12 degrees S, stretches across the Indian Ocean, separating the monsoon dominated regime of the northern Indian Ocean from the more typical subtropical stratification to the south. ITW is well represented within the SEC thermocline, extending with concentrations above 80% of initial characteristics from the sea surface to 300-m within the eastern half of the Indian Ocean, with 60% concentration reaching well into the western Indian Ocean. The ITW transport within the SEC varies from 4 to 12 x 10(6) m(3)sec(-1), partly in response to variations of the injection rate at the eastern boundary and to the likelihood of a zonally elongated recirculation cell between the Equatorial Counter Current and the SEC within the Indian Ocean. Lateral mixing disperses the ITW plume meridionally with an effective isopycnal mixing coefficient of 1.1 to 1.6 x 10(4) m(2)sec(-1).

Billheimer, S, Talley LD.  2016.  Annual cycle and destruction of Eighteen Degree Water. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans. 121:6604-6617.   10.1002/2016jc011799   AbstractWebsite

Eighteen Degree Water (EDW), the subtropical mode water of the western North Atlantic, is a voluminous, weakly stratified upper ocean water mass that acts as a subsurface reservoir of heat, nutrients, and CO2. This thick layer persists throughout the year, but nearly half of its volume is dispersed or mixed away, diffusing its properties into the thermocline, from the time it outcrops in winter until it is renewed the following year. CTD observations from Argo profiling floats and acoustically tracked, isothermally bound profiling floats are used to quantify EDW destruction rates and investigate the relevant processes responsible for the large annual cycle of EDW. EDW destruction occurs primarily at the top of the EDW layer, with the highest EDW destruction rates occurring during early summer. Slower, steadier EDW destruction is observed in early winter. EDW destruction is dominated by 1-D vertical diffusion, while mesoscale, along-isopycnal stirring is also significant, explaining approximately 1/3 of the total annual EDW destruction. Destruction via along-isopycnal processes is more prevalent near the Gulf Stream than in the southern Sargasso Sea, due to higher potential vorticity gradients and enhanced mesoscale activity.

Johnson, KS, Plant JN, Dunne JP, Talley LD, Sarmiento JL.  2017.  Annual nitrate drawdown observed by SOCCOM profiling floats and the relationship to annual net community production. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans. 122:6668-6683.   10.1002/2017jc012839   AbstractWebsite

Annual nitrate cycles have been measured throughout the pelagic waters of the Southern Ocean, including regions with seasonal ice cover and southern hemisphere subtropical zones. Vertically resolved nitrate measurements were made using in situ ultraviolet spectrophotometer (ISUS) and submersible ultraviolet nitrate analyzer (SUNA) optical nitrate sensors deployed on profiling floats. Thirty-one floats returned 40 complete annual cycles. The mean nitrate profile from the month with the highest winter nitrate minus the mean profile from the month with the lowest nitrate yields the annual nitrate drawdown. This quantity was integrated to 200 m depth and converted to carbon using the Redfield ratio to estimate annual net community production (ANCP) throughout the Southern Ocean south of 30 degrees S. A well-defined, zonal mean distribution is found with highest values (3-4 mol C m(-2) yr(-1)) from 40 to 50 degrees S. Lowest values are found in the subtropics and in the seasonal ice zone. The area weighted mean was 2.9 mol C m(-2) yr(-1) for all regions south of 40 degrees S. Cumulative ANCP south of 50 degrees S is 1.3 Pg C yr(-1). This represents about 13% of global ANCP in about 14% of the global ocean area. Plain Language Summary This manuscript reports on 40 annual cycles of nitrate observed by chemical sensors on SOCCOM profiling floats. The annual drawdown in nitrate concentration by phytoplankton is used to assess the spatial variability of annual net community production in the Southern Ocean. This ANCP is a key component of the global carbon cycle and it exerts an important control on atmospheric carbon dioxide. We show that the results are consistent with our prior understanding of Southern Ocean ANCP, which has required decades of observations to accumulate. The profiling floats now enable annual resolution of this key process. The results also highlight spatial variability in ANCP in the Southern Ocean.

Delman, AS, Sprintall J, McClean JL, Talley LD.  2016.  Anomalous Java cooling at the initiation of positive Indian Ocean Dipole events. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans.   10.1002/2016JC011635   AbstractWebsite

Anomalous sea surface temperature (SST) cooling south of Java, initiated during May–July, is an important precursor to positive Indian Ocean Dipole (pIOD) events. As shown previously, the Java SST anomalies are spatially and temporally coincident with seasonal upwelling induced locally by southeasterly trade winds. However, we confirm earlier findings that interannual variability of the Java cooling is primarily driven by remote wind forcing from coastal Sumatra and the equatorial Indian Ocean (EqIO); we also find an influence from winds along the Indonesian Throughflow. The wind forcing in the EqIO and along coastal Sumatra does not initiate SST cooling locally due to a deep thermocline and thick barrier layer, but can force upwelling Kelvin waves that induce substantial surface cooling once they reach the seasonally shallower thermocline near the coast of Java. Satellite altimetry is used to obtain a Kelvin wave coefficient that approximates Kelvin wave amplitude variations along the equator. All pIOD years in the satellite record have anomalous levels of upwelling Kelvin wave activity along the equator during April–June, suggesting that upwelling waves during this season are necessary for pIOD event development. However, a change to wind-forced downwelling Kelvin waves during July–August can abruptly terminate cool Java SST anomalies and weaken the pIOD event. Upwelling Kelvin wave activity along the equator and wind stress anomalies west of Sumatra are both robust predictors of the IOD index later in the calendar year, while values of the Kelvin wave coefficient are the most reliable predictor of pIOD events specifically.

Sloyan, BM, Talley LD, Chereskin TK, Fine R, Holte J.  2010.  Antarctic Intermediate Water and Subantarctic Mode Water Formation in the Southeast Pacific: The Role of Turbulent Mixing. Journal of Physical Oceanography. 40:1558-1574.   10.1175/2010jpo4114.1   AbstractWebsite

During the 2005 austral winter (late August-early October) and 2006 austral summer (February-mid-March) two intensive hydrographic surveys of the southeast Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean were completed. In this study the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate epsilon, diapycnal diffusivity kappa, and buoyancy flux J(b) are estimated from the CTD/O(2) and XCTD profiles for each survey. Enhanced kappa of O(10(-3) to 10(-4) m(2) s(-1)) is found near the Subantarctic Front (SAF) during both surveys. During the winter survey, enhanced kappa was also observed north of the "subduction front,'' the northern boundary of the winter deep mixed layer north of the SAF. In contrast, the summer survey found enhanced kappa across the entire region north of the SAF below the shallow seasonal mixed layer. The enhanced kappa below the mixed layer decays rapidly with depth. A number of ocean processes are considered that may provide the energy flux necessary to support the observed diffusivity. The observed buoyancy flux (4.0 x 10(-8) m(2) s(-3)) surrounding the SAF during the summer survey is comparable to the mean buoyancy flux (0.57 x 10(-8) m(2) s(-3)) associated with the change in the interior stratification between austral summer and autumn, determined from Argo profiles. The authors suggest that reduced ocean stratification during austral summer and autumn, by interior mixing, preconditions the water column for the rapid development of deep mixed layers and efficient Antarctic Intermediate Water and Subantarctic Mode Water formation during austral winter and early spring.

Suga, T, Talley LD.  1995.  Antarctic Intermediate Water Circulation in the Tropical and Subtropical South-Atlantic. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans. 100:13441-13453.   10.1029/95jc00858   AbstractWebsite

Recent hydrographic data from the South Atlantic Ventilation Experiment cruises and others are combined with historical data and used to map the isopycnal properties corresponding to the Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) in the Atlantic Ocean. The low salinity of the AAIW extends eastward across the South Atlantic just south of the equator (3-4 degrees S). Evidence of a weak eastward flow just north of the equator (1-2 degrees N) is also shown. Lateral and vertical homogenization of properties in the AAIW is found at the equator between 2 degrees S and 2 degrees N; there is no clear zonal gradient in salinity just along the equator. These observations suggest enhanced mixing within the equatorial baroclinic deformation radius. The South Atlantic tropical gyre is shown to consist of the following three cells: one cyclonic cell centered at about 7 degrees S, another centered at about 19 degrees S in the west and 23 degrees S in the east, and one anticyclonic cell centered at about 13 degrees S. These cells are associated with a westward extension at 10 degrees S of high salinity and low oxygen which originates in the eastern tropical South Atlantic and a front in these properties at about 15 degrees S in the west and about 20 degrees S in the east.

Campbell, EC, Wilson EA, Moore GWK, Riser SC, Brayton CE, Mazloff MR, Talley LD.  2019.  Antarctic offshore polynyas linked to Southern Hemisphere climate anomalies. Nature. 570:319-+.   10.1038/s41586-019-1294-0   AbstractWebsite

Offshore Antarctic polynyas -large openings in the winter sea ice cover-are thought to be maintained by a rapid ventilation of deep-ocean heat through convective mixing. These rare phenomena may alter abyssal properties and circulation, yet their formation mechanisms are not well understood. Here we demonstrate that concurrent upper-ocean preconditioning and meteorological perturbations are responsible for the appearance of polynyas in the Weddell Sea region of the Southern Ocean. Autonomous profiling float observations-collected in 2016 and 2017 during the largest polynyas to form near the Maud Rise seamount since 1976 -reveal that the polynyas were initiated and modulated by the passage of severe storms, and that intense heat loss drove deep overturning within them. Wind-driven upwelling of record strength weakened haline stratification in the upper ocean, thus favouring destabilization in 2016 and 2017. We show that previous Weddell polynyas probably developed under similarly anomalous conditions, which are associated with a mode of Southern Hemisphere climate variability that is predicted to strengthen as a result of anthropogenic climate change.

Holte, J, Talley LD, Gilson J, Roemmich D.  2017.  An Argo mixed layer climatology and database. Geophysical Research Letters. 44:5618-5626.   10.1002/2017gl073426   AbstractWebsite

A global climatology and database of mixed layer properties are computed from nearly 1,250,000 Argo profiles. The climatology is calculated with both a hybrid algorithm for detecting the mixed layer depth (MLD) and a standard threshold method. The climatology provides accurate information about the depth, properties, extent, and seasonal patterns of global mixed layers. The individual profile results in the database can be used to construct time series of mixed layer properties in specific regions of interest. The climatology and database are available online at . The MLDs calculated by the hybrid algorithm are shallower and generally more accurate than those of the threshold method, particularly in regions of deep winter mixed layers; the new climatology differs the most from existing mixed layer climatologies in these regions. Examples are presented from the Labrador and Irminger Seas, the Southern Ocean, and the North Atlantic Ocean near the Gulf Stream. In these regions the threshold method tends to overestimate winter MLDs by approximately 10% compared to the algorithm.