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Feely, RA, Talley LD, Johnson GC, Sabine CL, Wanninkhof R.  2005.  Repeat hydrography cruises reveal chemical changes in the North Atlantic. Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union. 86:399,404-405. Abstract
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Fiedler, PC, Talley LD.  2006.  Hydrography of the eastern tropical Pacific: A review. Progress in Oceanography. 69:143-180.   10.1016/j.pocean.2006.03.008   AbstractWebsite

Eastern tropical Pacific Ocean waters lie at the eastern end of a basin-wide equatorial current system, between two large subtropical gyres and at the terminus of two eastern boundary currents. Descriptions and interpretations of surface, pycnocline, intermediate and deep waters in the region are reviewed. Spatial and temporal patterns are discussed using (1) maps of surface temperature, salinity, and nutrients (phosphate, silicate, nitrate and nitrite), and thermocline and mixed layer parameters, and (2) meridional and zonal sections of temperature, salinity, potential density, oxygen, and nutrients. These patterns were derived from World Ocean Database observations by an ocean interpolation algorithm: loess-weighted observations were projected onto quadratic functions of spatial coordinates while simultaneously fitting annual and semiannual harmonics and the Southern Oscillation Index to account for interannual variability. Contrasts between the equatorial cold tongue and the eastern Pacific warm pool are evident in all the hydrographic parameters. Annual cycles and ENSO (El Nino-Southern Oscillation) variability are of similar amplitude in the eastern tropical Pacific, however, there are important regional differences in relative variability at these time scales. Unique characteristics of the eastern tropical Pacific are discussed: the strong and shallow pycnocline, the pronounced oxygen minimum layer, and the Costa Rica Dome. This paper is part of a comprehensive review of the oceanography of the eastern tropical Pacific. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Flatau, MK, Talley L, Niiler PP.  2003.  The North Atlantic Oscillation, surface current velocities, and SST changes in the subpolar North Atlantic. Journal of Climate. 16:2355-2369.   10.1175/2787.1   AbstractWebsite

Changes in surface circulation in the subpolar North Atlantic are documented for the recent interannual switch in the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index from positive values in the early 1990s to negative values in 1995/96. Data from Lagrangian drifters, which were deployed in the North Atlantic from 1992 to 1998, were used to compute the mean and varying surface currents. NCEP winds were used to calculate the Ekman component, allowing isolation of the geostrophic currents. The mean Ekman velocities are considerably smaller than the mean total velocities that resemble historical analyses. The northeastward flow of the North Atlantic Current is organized into three strong cores associated with topography: along the eastern boundary in Rockall Trough, in the Iceland Basin ( the subpolar front), and on the western flank of the Reykjanes Ridge (Irminger Current). The last is isolated in this Eulerian mean from the rest of the North Atlantic Current by a region of weak velocities on the east side of the Reykjanes Ridge. The drifter results during the two different NAO periods are compared with geostrophic flow changes calculated from the NASA/Pathfinder monthly gridded sea surface height (SSH) variability products and the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) SST data. During the positive NAO years the northeastward flow in the North Atlantic Current appeared stronger and the circulation in the cyclonic gyre in the Irminger Basin became more intense. This was consistent with the geostrophic velocities calculated from altimetry data and surface temperature changes from AVHRR SST data, which show that during the positive NAO years, with stronger westerlies, the subpolar front was sharper and located farther east. SST gradients intensified in the North Atlantic Current, Irminger Basin, and east of the Shetland Islands during the positive NAO phase, associated with stronger currents. SST differences between positive and negative NAO years were consistent with changes in air-sea heat flux and the eastward shift of the subpolar front. SST advection, as diagnosed from the drifters, likely acted to reduce the SST differences.

Flatau, M, Talley L, Musgrave D.  2000.  Interannual variability in the Gulf of Alaska during the 1991-94 El Nino. Journal of Climate. 13:1664-1673.   10.1175/1520-0442(2000)013<1664:ivitgo>2.0.co;2   AbstractWebsite

Mass and heat budgets in the Gulf of Alaska during the 1991-94 El Nino are examined using hydrographic data from several cruises undertaken as part of the International North Pacific Ocean Climate program and the repeated Canadian hydrographic sections out to Ocean weather Station Papa. The geostrophic ocean circulation resulted in convergence of heat into the region in spring 1992 and spring 1993. The advective heat convergence in spring 1992 corresponded to an average surface heat flux from the ocean to the atmosphere of about 74 W m(-2) in comparison with only 30 W m(-2) during spring 1993. The larger ocean heat loss to the atmosphere in 1992 followed a winter of large tropical SST anomalies and anomalously low pressure in the Aleutian low.

Fukamachi, Y, Mizuta G, Ohshima KI, Talley LD, Riser SC, Wakatsuchi M.  2004.  Transport and modification processes of dense shelf water revealed by long-term moorings off Sakhalin in the Sea of Okhotsk. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans. 109   10.1029/2003jc001906   AbstractWebsite

The region off the east coast of Sakhalin is thought of as an important pathway of dense shelf water (DSW) from its production region in the northwestern Okhotsk Sea to the southern Okhotsk Sea. From July 1998 to June 2000, the first long-term mooring experiment was carried out in this region to observe the southward flowing East Sakhalin Current (ESC) and DSW. Moored and associated hydrographic data show considerable modification of cold dense water via mixing with warm offshore water in the slope region off northern Sakhalin. Significant onshore eddy heat flux was observed at the northernmost mooring (54.9degreesN), which suggests the occurrence of baroclinic instability. The eddy heat flux was not significant farther south. At moorings along 53degreesN, cold anticyclonic eddies were identified that were consistent with isolated eddies seen in the hydrographic data. The three years of hydrographic data also showed large differences in extent and properties of DSW. Furthermore, the mooring data show that seasonal variability of DSW was quite different in the two years. The average DSW transport for sigma(theta) > 26.7 evaluated using the moored data at 53degreesN for 1 year (1998-1999) was similar to0.21 Sv (= 10(6) m(3) s(-1)). This value is at the lower end of the previous indirect estimates. Along with the DSW modification, this transport estimate indicates that DSW was not only carried southward by the ESC but was spread offshore by eddies off northern Sakhalin.