Publications

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2010
Stramma, L, Schmidtko S, Levin LA, Johnson GC.  2010.  Ocean oxygen minima expansions and their biological impacts. Deep-Sea Research Part I-Oceanographic Research Papers. 57:587-595.   10.1016/j.dsr.2010.01.005   AbstractWebsite

Climate models with biogeochemical components predict declines in oceanic dissolved oxygen with global warming. In coastal regimes oxygen deficits represent acute ecosystem perturbations Here, we estimate dissolved oxygen differences across the global tropical and subtropical oceans within the oxygen minimum zone (200-700-dbar depth) between 1960-1974 (an early period with reliable data) and 1990-2008 (a recent period capturing ocean response to planetary warming) In most regions of the tropical Pacific. Atlantic, and Indian Oceans the oxygen content in the 200-700-dbar layer has declined. Furthermore, at 200 dbar, the area with O(2) < 70 mu mol kg(-1) where some large mobile macro-organisms are unable to abide, has increased by 4.5 million km(2) The tropical low oxygen zones have expanded horizontally and vertically Subsurface oxygen has decreased adjacent to most continental shelves However, oxygen has increased in sonic regions in the subtropical gyres at the depths analyzed According to literature discussed below, fishing pressure is strong in the open ocean, which may make it difficult to isolate the impact of declining oxygen on fisheries At shallower depths we predict habitat compression will occur for hypoxia-intolerant taxa, with eventual loss of biodiversity. Should past trends in observed oxygen differences continue into the future, shifts in animal distributions and changes in ecosystem structure could accelerate (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved

2009
Fodrie, FJ, Levin LA, Rathburn AE.  2009.  High densities and depth-associated changes of epibenthic megafauna along the Aleutian margin from 2000-4200 m. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. 89:1517-1527.   10.1017/s0025315409000903   AbstractWebsite

The Aleutian margin is a dynamic environment underlying a productive coastal ocean and subject to frequent tectonic disturbance. In July 2004, We used over 500 individual bottom images from towed camera transects to investigate patterns of epibenthic megafaunal density and community composition on the contiguous Aleutian margin (53 degrees N 163 degrees W) at depths of 2000 m, 3200 m and 4200 M. We also examined the influence of vertical isolation on the megafaunal assemblage across a topographic rise at 3200 m, located 30 km from the main margin and elevated 800 m above the surrounding seafloor. In comparison to previous reports from bathyal and abyssal depths, megafaunal densities along the Aleutian margin were remarkably high, averaging 5.38 +/- 0.43 (mean +/- 1 standard error), 0.32 +/- 0.02 to 0.43 +/- 0.03 and 0.27 +/- 0.01 individuals m(-2) at 2000 m, 3200 m and 4200 m, respectively. Diversity at 2000 M Was elevated by 15-30% over the deeper sites (3200-4200 m) depending on the metric, while evenness was depressed by similar to 10%. Levels of richness and evenness were similar among the three deeper sites. Echinoderms were the most abundant phylum at each depth; ophiuroids accounted for 89% of individuals in photographs at 2000 m, echinoids were dominant at 3200 M (39%), and holothurians dominated at 4200 m (47%). We observed a 26% reduction in megafaunal density across the summit of the topographic rise relative to that documented on the continental slope at the same depth. However, the two communities at 3200 m were very similar in composition. Together, these data support the modified 'archibenthal zone of transition' framework for slope community patterns with distinct communities along the middle and lower slope (the upper slope was not evaluated here). This study fills a geographical gap by providing baseline information for a relatively pristine, high-latitude, deep-sea benthic ecosystem. As pressures grow for drilling, fishing and mining on high-latitude margins, such data can serve as a reference point for much-needed studies on the ecology, long-term dynamics, and anthropogenically induced change of these habitats.

2007
Blankenship, LE, Levin LA.  2007.  Extreme food webs: Foraging strategies and diets of scavenging amphipods from the ocean's deepest 5 kilometers. Limnology and Oceanography. 52:1685-1697.   10.4319/lo.2007.52.4.1685   AbstractWebsite

We explore hypotheses that alternate foraging strategies, diet, or nutrient partitioning could help explain the success of scavenging Lysianassoids (Amphipoda) in hadal oligotrophic trenches (depths of 6-11 km) by examining the nutritional strategies of four lysianassoid species ( Eurythenes gryllus, Scopelocheirus schellenbergi, Hirondellea dubia, and Uristes sp. nov.) collected with baited traps (6.3-10.8 km) from the oligotrophic Tonga and Kermadec Trenches (southwest Pacific Ocean). Diets and foraging strategies were examined by use of (1) the nascent DNA-based analysis of hindgut contents, which provides a 'snapshot' of recently ingested organisms, and (2) natural abundance isotopic signatures, which reflect the source of nutrition and relative trophic position. The scavenging guild exhibits remarkable trophic plasticity, and each amphipod species employs alternate foraging modes, including detrivory or predation, to supplement necrophagy. The nutritional strategies of some species appear to shift with age, depth, and even between trenches. Thus, there is no single ubiquitous hadal food web; rather it is influenced by depth and overlying surface productivity. Isotopic data suggest that coexisting species partition the dietary items, providing evidence of competition among members of the scavenging guild. The extreme foraging flexibility of scavenging amphipods may ultimately contribute to their success in severely food-limited hadal ecosystems.