Publications

Export 13 results:
Sort by: Author Title Type [ Year  (Desc)]
2014
Cook, GS, Parnell PE, Levin LA.  2014.  Population connectivity shifts at high frequency within an open-coast marine protected area network. Plos One. 9   10.1371/journal.pone.0103654   AbstractWebsite

A complete understanding of population connectivity via larval dispersal is of great value to the effective design and management of marine protected areas (MPA). However empirical estimates of larval dispersal distance, self-recruitment, and within season variability of population connectivity patterns and their influence on metapopulation structure remain rare. We used high-resolution otolith microchemistry data from the temperate reef fish Hypsypops rubicundus to explore biweekly, seasonal, and annual connectivity patterns in an open-coast MPA network. The three MPAs, spanning 46 km along the southern California coastline were connected by larval dispersal, but the magnitude and direction of connections reversed between 2008 and 2009. Self-recruitment, i.e. spawning, dispersal, and settlement to the same location, was observed at two locations, one of which is a MPA. Self-recruitment to this MPA ranged from 50-84%; within the entire 60 km study region, self-recruitment accounted for 45% of all individuals settling to study reefs. On biweekly time scales we observed directional variability in alongshore current data and larval dispersal trajectories; if viewed in isolation these data suggest the system behaves as a source-sink metapopulation. However aggregate biweekly data over two years reveal a reef network in which H. rubicundus behaves more like a well-mixed metapopulation. As one of the few empirical studies of population connectivity within a temperate open coast reef network, this work can inform the MPA design process, implementation of ecosystem based management plans, and facilitate conservation decisions.

Larkin, KE, Gooday AJ, Woulds C, Jeffreys RM, Schwartz M, Cowie G, Whitcraft C, Levin L, Dick JR, Pond DW.  2014.  Uptake of algal carbon and the likely synthesis of an "essential" fatty acid by Uvigerina ex. gr. semiornata (Foraminifera) within the Pakistan margin oxygen minimum zone: evidence from fatty acid biomarker and C-13 tracer experiments. Biogeosciences. 11:3729-3738.   10.5194/bg-11-3729-2014   AbstractWebsite

Foraminifera are an important component of benthic communities in oxygen-depleted settings, where they potentially play a significant role in the processing of organic matter. We tracked the uptake of a C-13-labelled algal food source into individual fatty acids in the benthic foraminiferal species Uvigerina ex. gr. semiornata from the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). The tracer experiments were conducted on the Pakistan margin during the late/post monsoon period (August-October 2003). A monoculture of the diatom Thalassiosira weisflogii was C-13-labelled and used to simulate a pulse of phytoplankton in two complementary experiments. A lander system was used for in situ incubations at 140m water depth and for 2.5 days in duration. Shipboard laboratory incubations of cores collected at 140 m incorporated an oxystat system to maintain ambient dissolved oxygen concentrations and were terminated after 5 days. Uptake of diatoms was rapid, with a high incorporation of diatom fatty acids into foraminifera after similar to 2 days in both experiments. Ingestion of the diatom food source was indicated by the increase over time in the quantity of diatom biomarker fatty acids in the foraminifera and by the high percentage of C-13 in many of the fatty acids present at the endpoint of both in situ and laboratory-based experiments. These results indicate that U. ex. gr. semiornata rapidly ingested the diatom food source and that these foraminifera will play an important role in the short-term cycling of organic matter within this OMZ environment. The presence of 18:1(n-7) in the experimental foraminifera suggested that U. ex. gr. semiornata also consumed non-labelled bacterial food items. In addition, levels of 20:4(n-6), a PUFA only present in low amounts in the diatom food, increased dramatically in the foraminifera during both the in situ and shipboard experiments, possibly because it was synthesised de novo. This "essential fatty acid" is often abundant in benthic fauna, yet its origins and function have remained unclear. If U. ex. gr. semiornata is capable of de novo synthesis of 20:4(n-6), then it represents a potentially major source of this dietary nutrient in benthic food webs.

2013
Bowden, DA, Rowden AA, Thurber AR, Baco AR, Levin LA, Smith CR.  2013.  Cold seep epifaunal communities on the Hikurangi Margin, New Zealand: Composition, succession, and vulnerability to human activities. Plos One. 8   10.1371/journal.pone.0076869   AbstractWebsite

Cold seep communities with distinctive chemoautotrophic fauna occur where hydrocarbon-rich fluids escape from the seabed. We describe community composition, population densities, spatial extent, and within-region variability of epifaunal communities at methane-rich cold seep sites on the Hikurangi Margin, New Zealand. Using data from towed camera transects, we match observations to information about the probable life-history characteristics of the principal fauna to develop a hypothetical succession sequence for the Hikurangi seep communities, from the onset of fluid flux to senescence. New Zealand seep communities exhibit taxa characteristic of seeps in other regions, including predominance of large siboglinid tubeworms, vesicomyid clams, and bathymodiolin mussels. Some aspects appear to be novel; however, particularly the association of dense populations of ampharetid polychaetes with high-sulphide, high-methane flux, soft-sediment microhabitats. The common occurrence of these ampharetids suggests they play a role in conditioning sulphide-rich sediments at the sediment-water interface, thus facilitating settlement of clam and tubeworm taxa which dominate space during later successional stages. The seep sites are subject to disturbance from bottom trawling at present and potentially from gas hydrate extraction in future. The likely life-history characteristics of the dominant megafauna suggest that while ampharetids, clams, and mussels exploit ephemeral resources through rapid growth and reproduction, lamellibrachid tubeworm populations may persist potentially for centuries. The potential consequences of gas hydrate extraction cannot be fully assessed until extraction methods and target localities are defined but any long-term modification of fluid flow to seep sites would have consequences for all chemoautotrophic fauna.

2010
Baco, AR, Rowden AA, Levin LA, Smith CR, Bowden DA.  2010.  Initial characterization of cold seep faunal communities on the New Zealand Hikurangi margin. Marine Geology. 272:251-259.   10.1016/j.margeo.2009.06.015   AbstractWebsite

Cold-seep communities have been known from the North Atlantic and North Pacific for more than 20 years, but are only now being explored in the Southern Hemisphere While fisheries bycatch had suggested the presence of cold seeps on the New Zealand margin, the biodiversity and distribution of these communities remained unknown. Explorations using towed cameras and direct sampling gear revealed that cold seep sites are abundant along the New Zealand Hikurangi margin Initial characterization of the faunal communities at 8 of these sites indicates a fauna that is associated with particular sub-habitats but which varies in abundance between sites Community composition is typical, at higher taxonomic levels, of cold seep communities in other regions The dominant. symbiont-bearing taxa include siboglinid (tube) worms, vesicomyid clams and bathymodiolin mussels At the species level, much of the seep-associated fauna identified so far appears either to be new to science, or endemic to New Zealand seeps, suggesting the region may represent a new biogeographic province for cold-seep fauna Some overlap at the species and genus level is also indicated between the sampled seep communities and the fauna of hydrothermal vents on the Kermadec Arc in the region. Further taxonomic and genetic identifications of fauna from this study will allow us to fully test the levels of species overlap with other New Zealand chemosynthetic ecosystems as well as with other cold seep sites worldwide These apparently novel communities exhibit evidence of disturbance from a deep bottom-trawl fishery and appear to be threatened along the entire New Zealand margin. As bottom fisheries, mining, and fossil-fuel exploitation move into deeper waters, seep communities may be endangered worldwide, necessitating the initiation of conservation efforts even as new seep ecosystems are discovered and explored. Our findings highlight the unique nature of anthropogenic impacts in the deep-sea. in which reservoirs of biodiversity can be impacted long before they are even known. (C) 2009 Elsevier B V All rights reserved

2002
Davis, JLD, Levin LA, Walther SM.  2002.  Artificial armored shorelines: sites for open-coast species in a southern California bay. Marine Biology. 140:1249-1262.   10.1007/s00227-002-0779-8   AbstractWebsite

Artificial hard substrates have been used to stabilize naturally soft bay shorelines for centuries. Despite the loss of over half of the natural shoreline in many bays, little attention has been paid to the communities inhabiting armored shorelines and to the ecological implications of armoring. The goal of the present study was to examine factors affecting spatial and temporal variation of intertidal, hard-substrate biota (emergent species and fishes), with emphases on the influence of exposure, distance from the open ocean, and similarity to open-coast, hard-substrate communities. We examined community composition at eight San Diego Bay (California, USA) sites (an exposed and a protected site at four bay locations) in June and November 2000 and two open-coast sites in August 2000. At all bay sites, the shore was armored with granite boulders, a form of shoreline stabilization referred to as "riprap." Community structure was more variable spatially than temporally on the scales we studied, affected more by distance from the bay mouth and exposure to wave energy than by differences between June and November. Exposed sites near the bay mouth were more similar to natural open-coast sites, sharing about 45% of their species, than protected sites and sites farther from the mouth, which shared as few as 8%. Species richness was generally higher in exposed than protected bay sites. Species tended to occur higher in the intertidal zone at exposed than protected sites, and higher in November, when sea level was higher, than in June. Such results will be useful to shoreline managers who examine the ecological implications of hardening long stretches of coastline and may suggest ways to incorporate artificial structures into ecosystems in a more meaningful way.

Davis, JLD, Levin LA.  2002.  Importance of pre-recruitment life-history stages to population dynamics of the woolly sculpin Clinocottus analis. Marine Ecology-Progress Series. 234:229-246.   10.3354/meps234229   AbstractWebsite

The relative influence of pre- versus post-recruitment life-history events on population size has been the subject of much recent debate. In the marine realm, much work has focused on intertidal invertebrates and on tropical reef fishes, with mixed results. We addressed this problem for a temperate intertidal fish, Clinocottus analis. Our main goal was to determine which life-history stage was most responsible for temporal changes in population size from 1996 to 2000 at 2 sites in San Diego, California, both seasonally and during the 1997 to 1998 El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event. We approached the problem using cohort analysis and matrix population modeling. Recruitment pulses were evident in population size structure for up to a year, unobscured by post-recruitment mortality, which was not density-dependent, Recruitment was not correlated to spawning adult biomass of 3 mo earlier, suggesting that egg, larval, or early post-settlement processes during those 3 mo determined the magnitude of recruitment, and ultimately, population size. Stage-structured population projection matrices were constructed to compare population growth rates and sensitivities among seasons and between climate periods (El Nino and non-El Nino), Elasticity (prospective) and decomposition (retrospective) analyses of these matrices indicated that the vital rates to which population growth rate (lambda) was theoretically most sensitive were not necessarily those responsible for observed temporal differences in lambda. Although, was most sensitive to juvenile growth and adult survivorship, fertility (which in this model included fecundity and egg, larval, and early post-settlement survivorship), in addition to juvenile growth, drove observed seasonal differences in lambda C. andlis population size decreased during the 1997 to 1998 El Nino event due to a decrease in recruitment, a decrease in batch fecundity (hydrated eggs per female) and, at 1 site, changes in juvenile survivorship, Results of the study emphasize the power of early life-history events to structure C. analis populations on both seasonal and longer timescales.

2000
Rathburn, AE, Levin LA, Held Z, Lohmann KC.  2000.  Benthic foraminifera associated with cold methane seeps on the northern California margin: Ecology and stable isotopic composition. Marine Micropaleontology. 38:247-266.   10.1016/s0377-8398(00)00005-0   AbstractWebsite

Release of methane from large marine reservoirs has been linked to climate change, as a causal mechanism and a consequence of temperature changes, during the Quaternary and the Paleocene. These inferred linkages are based primarily on variations in benthic foraminiferal stable isotope signatures. Few modem analog data exist, however, to assess the influence of methane flux on the geochemistry or faunal characteristics of benthic foraminiferal assemblages. Here we present analyses of the ecology and stable isotopic compositions of living (Rose Bengal stained) and dead (fossil) foraminifera (>150 mu m) from cold methane seeps on the slope off of the Eel River, northern California (500-525 m), and discuss potential applications for reconstructions of methane release in the past and present. Calcareous foraminiferal assemblages associated with Calyptogena clam bed seeps were comprised of species that are also found in organic-rich environments. Cosmopolitan, paleoceanographically important taxa were abundant; these included Uvigerina, Bolivina, Chilostomella, Globobulimina, and Nonionella. We speculate that seep foraminifera are attracted to the availability of food at cold seeps, and require no adaptations beyond those needed for life in organic-rich, reducing environments. Oxygen isotopic values of the tests of living foraminiferal assemblages from seeps had a high range (up to 0.69 parts per thousand) as did carbon isotopic values (up to 1.02 parts per thousand). Many living foraminiferal isotope values were within the range exhibited by the same or similar species in non-seep environments. Carbon isotopic values of fossil foraminifera found deeper in the sediments (18-20 cm), however, were 4.10 parts per thousand (U. peregrina) and 3.60 parts per thousand (B. subargentea) more negative than living delta(13)C values. These results suggest that delta(13)C values of foraminiferal tests reflect methane seepage and species-specific differences in isotopic composition, and can indicate temporal variations in seep activity. A better understanding of foraminiferal ecology and stable isotopic composition will enhance paleo-seep recognition, and improve interpretations of climatic and paleoceanographic change. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

1998
Levin, LA, Talley TS, Hewitt J.  1998.  Macrobenthos of Spartina foliosa (Pacific cordgrass) salt marshes in southern California: Community structure and comparison to a Pacific mudflat and a Spartina alterniflora (Atlantic smooth cordgrass) marsh. Estuaries. 21:129-144.   10.2307/1352552   AbstractWebsite

Environmental attributes (vegetation and sediment properties) of and macrofaunal community structure in sediments of five southern California Spartina foliosa marshes (San Diego Bay, Mission Bay, Upper Newport Bay, Bolsa Chica Lagoon, and Anaheim Bay) were examined during October 1994. Macrofaunal densities in Pacific S. foliosa marshes (avg. 122,268 indiv. m(-2) > 300 mu m) were 3 to 10 times higher than observed in Atlantic S. alterniflora and S. anglica marshes. The macrofauna of S. foliosa marshes was composed mainly of enchytraeid, naidid, and tubificid oligochaetes (66%), with the enchytraeids dominant at all sites except Bolsa Chica Lagoon. Polychaetes, insects, and peracarid crustaceans accounted for most of the remaining fauna. Multivariate analyses indicated greatest faunal similarity between the two southernmost marshes (Mission Bay and San Diego Bay), and between Anaheim and Newport Bay marshes, with Bolsa Chica Lagoon exhibiting a distinct assemblage. There were strong positive associations of faunal abundance and composition with percent organic matter and percent open area, and negative associations with percent sand and dry weight of algae. For the vegetated marsh in Mission Bay, faunal comparisons were made with an adjacent mudflat and with a S. alterniflora marsh in North Carolina, USA. The unvegetated mudflat exhibited similar macrofaunal densities but higher species richness than the adjacent Spartina marsh. The macrofaunal assemblage of the Mission Bay S. foliosa marsh differed from that of the Atlantic S. alterniflora marsh and the Pacific mudflat in having a greater proportion of oligochaetes, especially Enchytraeidae, and fewer polychaetes. This study represents the first published description that we are aware of for macrofauna in S. foliosa vegetated marsh sediments. The findings document faunal variation among southern California embayments and suggest that differences in macrobenthic community structure occur between marsh and mudflat habitat as web as between east and west coast Spartina marshes. Observed differences may have significant implications for wetland conservation and restoration efforts.

Thistle, D, Levin LA.  1998.  The effect of experimentally increased near-bottom flow on metazoan meiofauna at a deep-sea site, with comparison data on macrofauna. Deep-Sea Research Part I-Oceanographic Research Papers. 45:625-+.   10.1016/s0967-0637(97)00101-5   AbstractWebsite

It has been argued that strong near-bottom hows affect macrofauna and meiofauna in the deep sea, but the evidence comes largely from studies that compared sites separated geographically by hundreds to thousands of kilometers and in depth by hundreds of meters. In this paper, the results of the first experimental investigation of the effects of strong near-bottom flow on deep-sea metazoan meiofauna are presented. At a site (32 degrees 27.581' N, 127 degrees 47.839' W) at 583 m depth on the Fieberling Guyot summit plain, the submersible Alvin emplaced weirs designed to increase the near-bottom flow locally. After 6.5 weeks, sediments in the weirs and unmanipulated locations in the vicinity were sampled. The abundances of nematodes, harpacticoid copepods, ostracods, and kinorhynchs, considered collectively and as individual taxa, were significantly lower in the weir samples than in the background samples. Parallel responses were observed in total macrofaunal and mollusk abundances. Proportional declines in kinorhynchs and mollusks were observed as well. These results suggest that strong near-bottom flow can reduce the abundance of meiofauna and macrofauna in the deep sea and alter assemblage composition. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Levin, LA, Gage JD.  1998.  Relationships between oxygen, organic matter and the diversity of bathyal macrofauna. Deep-Sea Research Part Ii-Topical Studies in Oceanography. 45:129-163.   10.1016/s0967-0645(97)00085-4   AbstractWebsite

The relationships of environmental factors with measures of macrobenthic community diversity were examined for the total fauna, and for polychaetes only, from 40 bathyal stations in the North Atlantic, eastern Pacific and Indian Oceans (154-3400 m). Stepwise multiple regression revealed that depth, latitude, sediment organic-carbon content and bottom-water oxygen concentration are significant factors that together explained 52-87% of the variation in macrobenthic species richness (E[s(100)]), the Shannon-Wiener index (H'), dominance (D), and evenness (J'). Percent sand and percent clay were not significant factors. After removal of depth and latitudinal effects, oxygen and organic-carbon concentrations combined accounted for 47, 67, 52 and 32% of residual variation in macrobenthic E(s(100)), H', D, and J', respectively. Organic carbon exhibited a stronger relationship than oxygen to measures of community evenness, and appeared to have more explanatory power for polychaetes than total macrobenthos. When only stations with oxygen < 1mll(-1) were considered, oxygen concentration became the dominant parameter after depth. Results suggest existence of an oxygen threshold ( < 0.45 mi l(-1)), above which oxygen effects on macrobenthic diversity are minor relative to organic matter influence, but below which oxygen becomes a critical factor. Our regression results lead us to hypothesize that for bathyal faunas, oxygen at low concentrations has more influence on species richness, while organic carbon regulates the distribution of individuals among species (community evenness). Examination of rarefaction curves for Indo-Pacific stations reveals that total macrobenthos, polychaetes, crustaceans and molluscs all exhibit reduced species richness within oxygen minimum zones (OMZs). However, representation under conditions of hypoxia varies among taxa, with polychaetes being most tolerant. Molluscs and crustaceans often (but not always) exhibit few individuals and species in OMZs, and sometimes disappear altogether, contributing to reduced macrobenthic diversity and elevated dominance in these settings. The linear negative relationship observed between bathyal species richness and sediment organic-carbon content (used here as a proxy for food availability) may represent the right side (more productive half) of the hump-shaped, diversity-productivity curve reported in other systems. These analyses suggest then are potentially strong influences of organic matter and oxygen on the diversity and composition of bathyal macrobenthos, especially in the Indo-Pacific Ocean. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

1996
Levin, LA, Talley D, Thayer G.  1996.  Succession of macrobenthos in a created salt marsh. Marine Ecology-Progress Series. 141:67-82.   10.3354/meps141067   AbstractWebsite

Early succession of macrofauna was examined over several years in a created Spartina alterniflora marsh located on the Newport River Estuary, North Carolina, USA. Epifauna and infaunal community structure and composition were compared at 2 elevations in plots planted with S. alterniflora, plots left bare of vegetation and vegetated plots in a nearby natural S, alterniflora marsh. No significant successional differences were observed between vegetated and unvegetated sediments in the created marsh. The earliest stages of colonization involved recruitment by opportunistic estuarine polychaetes: Streblospio benedicti, Capitella spp, and Polydora cornuta. Capitella spp. dominated the macrofauna a month after marsh creation, but thereafter S. benedicti was the most abundant species. During the first few years, the artificial marsh retained early successional characteristics, with S, benedicti, Capitella spp. and turbellarians accounting for 75 to 95% of the total macrofauna. Fiddler crabs were common epifaunal colonists. After 4 yr, species richness increased and dominance by the early colonists diminished. Taxa lacking planktonic larvae and swimming adults were particularly slow to recover in the created marsh, but accounted for over 25% of the infauna by Year 4. Oligochaetes, which comprised over 50% of the fauna in the natural marsh, remained absent or rare in the artificial system throughout the study. Infaunal recovery appears to be more rapid in lower than upper marsh elevations. Although macrofaunal densities and species richness of sediments in the lower created marsh came to resemble those of the natural marsh within 6 mo, species composition and faunal feeding modes did not. These observations suggest there may be significant functional differences between young artificial marshes and older natural marshes. Consideration of the timing of marsh creation, marsh configuration, continuity with natural marshes, seeding of taxa with poor dispersal, and attention to species habitat requirements are recommended to accelerate infaunal colonization of created Spartina marshes.

1991
Levin, LA, McCann LD, Thomas CL.  1991.  The ecology of polychaetes on deep seamounts in the eastern Pacific Ocean. Ophelia. :467-476. AbstractWebsite

Polychaetes were collected by the submersible ALVIN on 18 deep (788-3,353 m) seamounts in the eastern Pacific Ocean at 10-degrees, 13-degrees, 20-degrees and 30-degrees N off western Mexico. Polychaetes comprised 57.7% of all macrofauna collected. Average density over all locations was 942 polychaetes/m2. Thirty-eight families were represented among the 1,422 infaunal polychaetes collected. Five families, the Paraonidae, Cirratulidae, Syllidae, Ampharetidae, and Sabellidae, attained average densities > 1 individual/196 cm2 core. We evaluated effects of latitude, local setting, depth, and substrate on polychaete abundance, taxonomic composition, and lifestyles. Unusually high polychaete densities (7,194/m2) and low diversities were observed in a shallow caldera (788 m) at 13-degrees N. Excluding this site, the latitude exhibiting the highest polychaete densities (xBAR = 939/m2) was 10-degrees N. Of the seven settings examined, pit craters (within seamount calderas) supported the highest densities (xBAR = 1031/m2), and hydrothermal oxide fields and seamount bases exhibited the lowest polychaete densities (xBAR = 576-612/m2). Rippled foraminiferal sands on volcano summits supported large numbers of filter feeders, particularly sabellids. Regressions of total polychaete abundance on depth and on percent sand were not significant. Large, epifaunal, sediment-agglutinating protozoans (Phylum Sarcodina: Class Xenophyophorea) provided habitat for 34 polychaete species. Polychaete abundance and family composition were generally similar to those reported for other nearshore, deep-sea environments at comparable depths. With the exception of the shallowest site, species richness was typically high.

Levin, LA, Childers SE, Smith CR.  1991.  Epibenthic, agglutinating foraminiferans in the Santa Catalina Basin and their response to disturbance. Deep-Sea Research Part a-Oceanographic Research Papers. 38:465-483.   10.1016/0198-0149(91)90047-j   AbstractWebsite

There are five common species of large (0.5-6 cm long) epibenthic, agglutinating foraminiferans in the Santa Catalina Basin (1200-1350 m). This paper describes their basic ecology and response to mound disturbance. Combined, the five species attain mean densities of 200-300 individuals per m2 and their protoplasm has an average biomass of 199.5 mg m-2. Individual species occur at densities ranging from 7 to 100 m-2, and each species has a different population size structure. Protoplasm comprises < 2% of test volumes. Analysis of excess Th-234 revealed no indication of particle sequestering within tests, and acridine orange direct counts of bacteria provided no evidence of microbial gardening or enhancement associated with tests. Twenty-five per cent of tests examined had metazoan associates; approximately half of these were polychaetes. Experiments were carried out to investigate the response of the epibenthic foraminiferal assemblage to disturbance from large, biogenic mounds, a common feature on the Santa Catalina Basin floor. Three branched forms, Pelosina cf. arborescens, P. cf. cylindrica and a mud-walled astrorhizinid, were most abundant on background sediments, less common on natural mounds and absent from artificially-created mounds exposed for 10.5 months. Two spherical species, Oryctoderma sp. and a different mud-walled astrorhizinid, were present at similar densities on artificial mounds (9.5-10.5 months old), natural mounds and undisturbed sediments, but Oryctoderma sp. attained largest sizes on mounds. These two species appear to be opportunistic taxa that can colonize and grow rapidly on mound sediments. This study suggests that disturbance, in this case that by sediment mound builders, is an important source of spatial heterogeneity in deep-water foraminiferal communities. Where sediment mounds occur, foraminiferal assemblages will experience disequilibrium dynamics.