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Ewel, KC, Cressa C, Kneib RT, Lake PS, Levin LA, Palmer MA, Snelgrove P, Wall DH.  2001.  Managing critical transition zones. Ecosystems. 4:452-460.   10.1007/s10021-001-0106-0   AbstractWebsite

Ecosystems that function as critical transition zones (CTZs) among terrestrial, freshwater, and marine habitats are closely connected to the ecosystems adjacent to them and are characterized by a rapid flux of materials and organisms. CTZs play various roles, including mediating water flows, accumulating sediments and organic matter, processing nutrients, and providing opportunities for recreation. They are particularly difficult to manage because they tend to be small, albeit important, components of large watersheds, and managers may not have control over the entire landscape. Moreover, they are often the focus of intensive human activity. Consequently, CTZs are critically important zones, and their preservation and protection are likely to require unique collaboration among scientists, managers, and stakeholders. Scientists can learn a great deal from the study of these ecosystems, taking advantage of small size and the importance of fluxes, but a good understanding of adaptive management strategies is needed to establish a dialogue with managers and stakeholders on technical and management issues. An understanding of risk analysis is also important to help set meaningful goals and establish logical strategies that include all of the interested parties. Successful restoration of a CTZ is the best test of the quality of knowledge about its structure and function. Much has already been learned about coastal CTZs through restoration projects, and the large number of such projects involving riparian CTZs in particular suggests that there is considerable opportunity for fruitful collaborations between scientists and managers.