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2015
Semeniuk, DM, Bundy RM, Payne CD, Barbeau KA, Maldonado MT.  2015.  Acquisition of organically complexed copper by marine phytoplankton and bacteria in the northeast subarctic Pacific Ocean. Marine Chemistry. 173:222-233.   10.1016/j.marchem.2015.01.005   AbstractWebsite

Copper (Cu) is an essential micronutrient for marine phytoplankton, but can cause toxicity at elevated intracellular concentrations. The majority of Cu (>99.9%) in oceanic surface waters is bound to strong organic ligands, presumably produced by prokaryotes to detoxify Cu. Although laboratory studies have demonstrated that organically complexed Cu may be bioavailable to marine eukaryotic phytoplankton, the bioavailability of Cu organic complexes to indigenous marine phytoplankton has not been examined in detail. Using the carrier free radioisotope Cu-67 at an iron limited station in the northeast subarctic Pacific Ocean, we performed size fractionated short-term Cu uptake assays with three Cu(II)-chelates, and Cu-67 bound to the strong in situ ligands, with or without additions of weak Cu(I) ligands. Estimates of the maximum supply of inorganic Cu (Cu') to the cell surface of eukaryotic phytoplankton were unable to account for the observed Cu uptake rates from the in situ ligands and two of the three added Cu(II)-chelates. Addition of 10 nM weak organic Cu(I) ligands enhanced uptake of Cu bound to the in situ ligands. Thus, Cu within the in situ and strong artificial Cu(II) organic ligands was accessible to the phytoplankton community via various possible Cu uptake strategies, including; cell surface enzymatically mediated reduction of Cu(II) to Cu(I), the substrate of the high-affinity Cu transport system in eukaryotes; or ligand exchange between weak Cu-binding ligands and the cellular Cu transporters. During a 14-hour uptake assay, particulate Cu concentrations reached a plateau in most treatments. Losses were observed in some treatments, especially in the small size fractions (<5 mu m), corresponding with faster initial Cu uptake rates. This may indicate that Cu cycling is rapid between particulate and dissolved phases due to cellular efflux or remineralization by micrograzers. The acquisition of Cu from the strong in situ ligands puts into question the historic role attributed to Cu binding ligands in decreasing Cu bioavailability. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

2014
Bundy, RM, Biller DV, Buck KN, Bruland KW, Barbeau KA.  2014.  Distinct pools of dissolved iron-binding ligands in the surface and benthic boundary layer of the California Current. Limnology and Oceanography. 59:769-787.   10.4319/lo.2014.59.3.0769   AbstractWebsite

Organic dissolved iron (dFe)-binding ligands were measured by competitive ligand exchange-adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry (CLE-ACSV) at multiple analytical windows (side reaction coefficient of salicylaldoxime, alpha(Fe(SA)2) = 30, 60, and 100) in surface and benthic boundary layer (BBL) samples along the central California coast during spring and summer. The weakest ligands were detected in the BBL at the lowest analytical window with average log K-FeL,Fe'(cond) = 10.2 +/- 0.4 in the summer and 10.8 +/- 0.2 in the spring. Between 3% and 18% of the dFe complexation in the BBL was accounted for by HS, which were measured separately in samples by ACSV and may indicate a source of dFe-binding ligands from San Francisco Bay. The strongest ligands were found in nearshore spring surface waters at the highest analytical window with average log K-FeL,Fe'(cond) = 11.9 +/- 0.3, and the concentrations of these ligands declined rapidly offshore. The ligand pools in the surface and BBL waters were distinct from each other based on principal components analysis, with variances in the BBL ligand pool explained by sample location, and variance in surface waters explained by water mass. The use of multiple analytical window analysis elucidated several distinct iron-binding ligand pools, each with unique distributions in the central California Current system.