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Chappell, PD, Armbrust EV, Barbeau KA, Bundy RM, Moffett JW, Vedamati J, Jenkins BD.  2019.  Patterns of diatom diversity correlate with dissolved trace metal concentrations and longitudinal position in the northeast Pacific coastal-offshore transition zone. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 609:69-86.   10.3354/meps12810   AbstractWebsite

Diatoms are important primary producers in the northeast Pacific Ocean, with their productivity closely linked to pulses of trace elements in the western high nitrate, low chlorophyll (HNLC) region of the oceanographic time series transect 'Line P.' Recently, the coastal-HNLC transition zone of the Line P transect was identified as a hotspot of phytoplankton productivity, potentially controlled by a combination of trace element and macronutrient concentrations. Here we describe diatom community composition in the eastern Line P transect, including the coastal- HNLC transition zone, with a method using high-throughput sequencing of diatom 18S gene amplicons. We identified significant correlations between shifting diatom community composition and longitude combined with concentrations of dissolved copper and 2 other dissolved trace metals (dissolved Fe [dFe] and/or dissolved zinc) and/or a physical factor (salinity or density). None of these variables on its own was significantly correlated with shifts in community composition, and 3 of the factors (dFe, salinity, and density) correlated with one another. Longitude could incorporate multiple factors that may influence diatom communities, including distance from shore, proximity of sampling stations, and an integration of previous pulses of macro- and micro-nutrients. We also evaluated in situ Fe limitation of the diatom Thalassiosira oceanica using a quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction method, and found biological evidence of Fe stress in samples from the coastal-HNLC transition zone. Combined, our results support a prior hypothesis that dissolved trace metals as well as longitudinal distance may be important to diatom diversity in the coastal-HNLC transition zone of the Line P transect.

Hogle, SL, Dupont CL, Hopkinson BM, King AL, Buck KN, Roe KL, Stuart RK, Allen AE, Mann EL, Johnson ZI, Barbeau KA.  2018.  Pervasive iron limitation at subsurface chlorophyll maxima of the California Current. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 115:13300-13305.   10.1073/pnas.1813192115   AbstractWebsite

Subsurface chlorophyll maximum layers (SCMLs) are nearly ubiquitous in stratified water columns and exist at horizontal scales ranging from the submesoscale to the extent of oligotrophic gyres. These layers of heightened chlorophyll and/or phytoplankton concentrations are generally thought to be a consequence of a balance between light energy from above and a limiting nutrient flux from below, typically nitrate (NO3). Here we present multiple lines of evidence demonstrating that iron (Fe) limits or with light colimits phytoplankton communities in SCMLs along a primary productivity gradient from coastal to oligotrophic offshore waters in the southern California Current ecosystem. SCML phytoplankton responded markedly to added Fe or Fe/light in experimental incubations and transcripts of diatom and picoeukaryote Fe stress genes were strikingly abundant in SCML metatranscriptomes. Using a biogeochemical proxy with data from a 40-y time series, we find that diatoms growing in California Current SCMLs are persistently Fe deficient during the spring and summer growing season. We also find that the spatial extent of Fe deficiency within California Current SCMLs has significantly increased over the last 25 y in line with a regional climate index. Finally, we show that diatom Fe deficiency may be common in the subsurface of major upwelling zones worldwide. Our results have important implications for our understanding of the biogeochemical consequences of marine SCML formation and maintenance.

Stuart, RK, Bundy R, Buck K, Ghassemain M, Barbeau K, Palenik B.  2017.  Copper toxicity response influences mesotrophic Synechococcus community structure. Environmental Microbiology. 19:756-769.   10.1111/1462-2920.13630   AbstractWebsite

Picocyanobacteria from the genus Synechococcus are ubiquitous in ocean waters. Their phylogenetic and genomic diversity suggests ecological niche differentiation, but the selective forces influencing this are not well defined. Marine picocyanobacteria are sensitive to Cu toxicity, so adaptations to this stress could represent a selective force within, and between, species', also known as clades. Here, we compared Cu stress responses in cultures and natural populations of marine Synechococcus from two co-occurring major mesotrophic clades (I and IV). Using custom microarrays and proteomics to characterize expression responses to Cu in the lab and field, we found evidence for a general stress regulon in marine Synechococcus. However, the two clades also exhibited distinct responses to copper. The Clade I representative induced expression of genomic island genes in cultures and Southern California Bight populations, while the Clade IV representative downregulated Fe-limitation proteins. Copper incubation experiments suggest that Clade IV populations may harbour stress-tolerant subgroups, and thus fitness tradeoffs may govern Cu-tolerant strain distributions. This work demonstrates that Synechococcus has distinct adaptive strategies to deal with Cu toxicity at both the clade and subclade level, implying that metal toxicity and stress response adaptations represent an important selective force for influencing diversity within marine Synechococcus populations.

Fitzsimmons, JN, Bundy RM, Al-Subiai SN, Barbeau KA, Boyle EA.  2015.  The composition of dissolved iron in the dusty surface ocean: An exploration using size-fractionated iron-binding ligands. Marine Chemistry. 173:125-135.   10.1016/j.marchem.2014.09.002   AbstractWebsite

The size partitioning of dissolved iron and organic iron-binding ligands into soluble and colloidal phases was investigated in the upper 150 m of two stations along the GA03 U.S. GEOTRACES North Atlantic transect. The size fractionation was completed using cross-flow filtration methods, followed by analysis by isotope dilution inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS) for iron and competitive ligand exchange-adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry (CLE-ACSV) for iron-binding ligands. On average, 80% of the 0.1-0.65 nM dissolved iron (<0.2 mu m) was partitioned into the colloidal iron (cFe) size fraction (10 kDa < cFe <0.2 gm), as expected for areas of the ocean underlying a dust plume. The 1.3-2.0 nM strong organic iron-binding ligands, however, overwhelmingly (75-77%) fell into the soluble size fraction (<10 kDa). As a result, modeling the dissolved iron size fractionation at equilibrium using the observed ligand partitioning did not accurately predict the iron partitioning into colloidal and soluble pools. This suggests that either a portion of colloidal ligands is missed by current electrochemical methods because they react with iron more slowly than the equilibration time of our CLE-ACSV method, or part of the observed colloidal iron is actually inorganic in composition and thus cannot be predicted by our model of unbound iron-binding ligands. This potentially contradicts the prevailing view that greater than >99% of dissolved iron in the ocean is organically complexed. Disentangling the chemical form of iron in the upper ocean has important implications for surface ocean biogeochemistry and may affect iron uptake by phytoplankton. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Bundy, RM, Abdulla HAN, Hatcher PG, Biller DV, Buck KN, Barbeau KA.  2015.  Iron-binding ligands and humic substances in the San Francisco Bay estuary and estuarine-influenced shelf regions of coastal California. Marine Chemistry. 173:183-194.   10.1016/j.marchem.2014.11.005   AbstractWebsite

Dissolved iron (dFe) and organic dFe-binding ligands were determined in San Francisco Bay, California by competitive ligand exchange adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry (CLE-ACSV) along a salinity gradient from the freshwater endmember of the Sacramento River (salinity <2) to the mouth of the estuary (salinity >26). A range of dFe-binding ligand classes was simultaneously determined using multiple analytical window analysis, involving titrations with multiple concentrations of the added ligand,salicylaldoxime. The highest dFe and ligand concentrations were determined in the low salinity end of the estuary, with dFe equal to 131.5 nmol L-1 and strong ligand (log K-Fel, Fe'(cond) >= 12.0) concentrations equal to 139.5 nmol L-1. The weakest ligands (log K-Fel, Fe'(cond) < 10.0) were always in excess of dFe in low salinity waters, but were rapidly flocculated within the estuary and were not detected at salinities greater than 7. The strongest ligands (log K-Fel, Fe'(cond) > 11.0) were tightly coupled to dFe throughout the estuary, with average excess ligand concentrations ([L]-[dFe]) equal to 0.5 nmol L-1. Humic-like substances analyzed via both CLE-ACSV and proton nuclear magnetic resonance in several samples were found to be a significant portion of the dFe-binding ligand pool in San Francisco Bay, with concentrations ranging from 559.5 mu g L-1 to 67.5 mu g L-1 in the lowest and highest salinity samples, respectively. DFe-binding ligands and humic-like substances were also found in benthic boundary layer samples taken from the shelf near the mouths of San Francisco Bay and Eel River, suggesting estuaries are an important source of dFe-binding ligands to California coastal shelf waters. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Hopkinson, BM, Seegers B, Hatta M, Measures CI, Mitchell BG, Barbeau KA.  2013.  Planktonic C:Fe ratios and carrying capacity in the southern Drake Passage. Deep-Sea Research Part Ii-Topical Studies in Oceanography. 90:102-111.   10.1016/j.dsr2.2012.09.001   AbstractWebsite

The carbon to iron (C:Fe) ratio of planktonic biomass constrains net production in iron-limited regions of the ocean and is an important parameter for predicting biomass production from iron inputs. On a cruise to the southern Drake Passage in July-August 2006, we used two approaches to determine the C:Fe ratio of planktonic material: dual-radiotracer labeling and net biomass production in iron-limited grow-out experiments. There was variability in C:Fe ratios among experiments, but values from the two methods overlapped with average values of 1.4 x 10(5) (mol:mol) for the radiotracer method and 1.7 x 10(5) for the net biomass production method. This is notable since the net biomass production method is a new approach to determine C:Fe ratios. Although it has potential issues related to bottle effects and sensitivity to trace contamination, the method avoids some of the questions associated with iron speciation and bioavailability since ambient iron supports production. Because light intensity is known to affect C:Fe ratios in phytoplankton through photosynthetic iron demands, we tested the effect of light level on C:Fe in Antarctic assemblages. In contrast to what is seen in many phytoplankton cultures, C:Fe ratios increased at low-light, but we suspect that this is due to initial photoinhibition of the low-light adapted winter assemblages at higher light levels. (c) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Jiang, MS, Barbeau KA, Selph KE, Measures CI, Buck KN, Azam F, Mitchell BG, Zhou M.  2013.  The role of organic ligands in iron cycling and primary productivity in the Antarctic Peninsula: A modeling study. Deep-Sea Research Part Ii-Topical Studies in Oceanography. 90:112-133.   10.1016/j.dsr2.2013.01.029   AbstractWebsite

Iron (Fe) is the limiting nutrient for primary productivity in the Southern Ocean, with much of the dissolved iron (dFe) bound to organic ligands or colloids. A Fe model for the Southern Ocean (SOFe) is developed to understand the role of bacteria and organic ligands in controlling Fe cycling and productivity. The model resolves the classical food web and microbial loop, including three types of nutrients (N, Si, Fe) and two types of Fe ligands. Simulations of the zero-dimensional (0-D) model are calibrated with detailed results of shipboard grow-out incubation experiments conducted with Antarctic Peninsula phytoplankton communities during winter 2006 to provide the best estimate of key biological parameters. Then a one-dimensional (1-D) model is developed by coupling the biological model with the Regional Oceanic Modeling System (ROMS) for a site on the Antarctic Peninsula shelf, and the model parameters are further calibrated with data collected from two surveys (summer 2004 and winter 2006) in the area. The results of the numerical simulations agree reasonably well with observations. An analysis of the 1-D model results suggests that bacteria and organic ligands may play an important role in Fe cycling, which can be categorized into a relatively fast mode within the euphotic zone dominated by photo-reactions (summer d Fe residence time about 600 days) and complexation and a slow mode below with most of the dFe biologically complexed (summer dFe residence time > 10 years). The dFe removal from the euphotic zone is dominated by colloidal formation and further aggregations with additional contribution from biological uptake, and an increase of organic ligands would reduce Fe export. The decrease of Fe removal rate over depth is due to the continuous dissolution and remineralization of particulate Fe. A number of sensitivity experiments are carried out for both O-D and 1-D models to understand the importance of photo-reactive processes in primary productivity, bacterial activity, Fe speciation, and dFe residence time within the euphotic zone. The bio-availability of ligand-bound Fe (FeL) is critical to modeled high primary productivity, which is consistent with both shipboard measurements and field observations. In addition, model productivity is sensitive to photoreaction rates if FeL is not directly available for phytoplankton uptake. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Landry, MR, Ohman MD, Goericke R, Stukel MR, Barbeau KA, Bundy R, Kahru M.  2012.  Pelagic community responses to a deep-water front in the California Current Ecosystem: overview of the A-Front Study. Journal of Plankton Research. 34:739-748.   10.1093/plankt/fbs025   AbstractWebsite

In October 2008, we investigated pelagic community composition and biomass, from bacteria to fish, across a sharp frontal gradient overlying deep waters south of Point Conception, California. This northsouth gradient, which we called A-Front, was formed by the eastward flow of the California Current and separated cooler mesotrophic waters of coastal upwelling origin to the north, from warm oligotrophic waters of likely mixed subarcticsubtropical origin to the south. Plankton biomass and phytoplankton growth rates were two to three times greater on the northern side, and primary production rates were elevated 5-fold to the north. Compared with either of the adjacent waters, the frontal interface was strongly enriched and uniquely defined by a subsurface bloom of large diatoms, elevated concentrations of suspension-feeding zooplankton, high bioacoustical estimates of pelagic fish and enhanced bacterial production and phytoplankton biomass and photosynthetic potential. Such habitats, though small in areal extent, may contribute disproportionately and importantly to regional productivity, nutrient cycling, carbon fluxes and trophic ecology. As a general introduction to the A-Front study, we provide an overview of its design and implementation, a brief summary of major findings and a discussion of potential mechanisms of plankton enrichment at the front.

King, AL, Buck KN, Barbeau KA.  2012.  Quasi-Lagrangian drifter studies of iron speciation and cycling off Point Conception, California. Marine Chemistry. 128:1-12.   10.1016/j.marchem.2011.11.001   AbstractWebsite

The distribution and speciation of dissolved Fe (dFe) were measured during four quasi-Lagrangian drogued drifter studies (similar to 4 d duration each) that were conducted in the southern California Current System in May 2006 and April 2007. Three of the four drifter studies were within the coastal upwelling regime and one drifter study was in a warm-core anticyclonic eddy. Incubation bottle experiments were also conducted to determine the degree of phytoplankton Fe limitation and to assess changes in the concentration of Fe-binding ligands. In the coastal upwelling drifter studies, in situ dFe (1.4-1.8 nM) and macronutrients were initially high and declined over time. Fe addition incubation experiments indicated that the phytoplankton community was not Fe limited at the beginning of the coastal upwelling drifter experiments (when mu M nitrate:nM dFe ratios were similar to 7-8). By the end of two of the three drifter studies (when mu M nitrate:nM dFe ratios were similar to 12-19), Fe addition resulted in larger nitrate and silicic acid drawdown, and larger accumulations in chlorophyll a, particulate organic carbon and nitrogen, and diatom and dinoflagellate-specific carotenoid pigments. Fe speciation was measured in situ in three of the four drifter studies with stronger L-1-type ligands found to be present in excess of dFe in all samples. In Fe speciation incubation experiments. L-1-type ligand production was observed in conjunction with phytoplankton growth under Fe-limiting conditions. The results presented here support and add a quasi-Lagrangian perspective to previous observations of dFe and macronutrient cycling over space and time within the California coastal upwelling regime, including Fe limitation within the phytoplankton community in this region and the biological production of Fe-binding ligands concomitant with Fe limitation. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Buck, KN, Selph KE, Barbeau KA.  2010.  Iron-binding ligand production and copper speciation in an incubation experiment of Antarctic Peninsula shelf waters from the Bransfield Strait, Southern Ocean. Marine Chemistry. 122:148-159.   10.1016/j.marchem.2010.06.002   AbstractWebsite

The evolution of dissolved iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) speciation was followed through a simulated spring bloom event in a 15-day incubation experiment of natural seawater collected during austral winter from high macronutrient high Fe waters of Bransfield Strait in the Southern Ocean. The incubation experiment included unamended bottles as well as Fe additions using the stable isotope of Fe, Fe-57. as inorganic ((FeCl3)-Fe-57) and organic (Fe-57-aerobactin, Fe-57-desferrioxamine B) amendments. Exposure to summer light conditions resulted in substantial growth for all treatments, mimicking the initiation of a spring bloom. The addition of Fe resulted in a 30% increase in phytoplankton biomass over unamended controls by day 15, indicating that the unamended waters became Fe limited despite initially elevated dissolved Fe concentrations. Dissolved Cu and Cu speciation remained largely unchanged for all treatments of the incubation, with Cu speciation dominated by exceedingly strong Cu-binding ligands (log K-CuL1.Cu2+(Cond) similar to 16) and low resultant Cu2+ concentrations (10(-16.3 +/- 0.3) mol L-1). In only the unamended light bottles, strong Fe-binding ligands were produced over the course of the experiment. The observed production of strong Fe-binding ligands in the control bottles that became Fe-limited supports the important role of biologically produced siderophore-type natural ligands in the marine Fe cycle. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Hopkinson, BM, Roe KL, Barbeau KA.  2008.  Heme uptake by Microscilla marina and evidence for heme uptake systems in the genomes of diverse marine bacteria. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 74:6263-6270.   10.1128/aem.00964-08   AbstractWebsite

The ability to acquire diverse and abundant forms of iron would be expected to confer a survival advantage in the marine environment, where iron is scarce. Marine bacteria are known to use siderophores and inorganic iron, but their ability to use heme, an abundant intracellular iron form, has only been examined preliminarily. Microscilla marina, a cultured relative of a bacterial group frequently found on marine particulates, was used as a model organism to examine heme uptake. Searches of the genome revealed analogs to known heme transport proteins, and reverse transcription-quantitative PCR analysis of these genes showed that they were expressed and upregulated under iron stress and during growth on heme. M. marina was found to take up heme-bound iron and could grow on heme as a sole iron source, supporting the genetic evidence for heme transport. Similar putative heme transport components were identified in the genomes of diverse marine bacteria. These systems were found in the genomes of many bacteria thought to be particle associated but were lacking in known free-living organisms (e.g., Pelagibacter ubique and marine cyanobacteria). This distribution of transporters is consistent with the hydrophobic, light-sensitive nature of heme, suggesting that it is primarily available on phytoplankton or detritus or in nutrient-rich environments.

Hopkinson, BM, Barbeau KA.  2007.  Organic and redox speciation of iron in the eastern tropical North Pacific suboxic zone. Marine Chemistry. 106:2-17.   10.1016/j.marchem.2006.02.008   AbstractWebsite

The organic and redox speciation of iron was examined in the strongly layered upper water column of the eastern tropical North Pacific, including oxic and sub oxic waters, in a region 100- 1300 km offshore. Suboxic conditions ([O-2] < 5 mu M) were found to affect the organic speciation of iron, and reduced dissolved iron, Fc(II), was present in the suboxic zone, but conditions were not sufficiently reducing to convert all iron to Fe(II). Dissolved iron concentrations in the suboxic zone were similar to concentrations found in oxic regions. Using a competitive ligand exchange-adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry (CLE-ACSV) method, natural ligands were found to have distinct characteristics in the oxic and suboxic waters with stronger ligands found in the suboxic zone. It is unusual to find stronger ligands below the euphotic zone, but their strength, logK(Fe'L) = 12.1-12.8, is within the range determined for surface ligands in other regions. These strong ligands may be the result of the unique chemistry of the suboxic zone stabilizing reduced or labile compounds, or they may be actively produced by microbes to enhance iron uptake. No onshore-offshore trends in ligand strength or concentration were detected suggesting the ligands may result from the inherent chemistry of the suboxic zone or production from denitrifiers, rather than the resident suboxic zone population of Prochlorococcus which were more abundant nearshore. A luminol-chemiluminescence based flow injection analysis (FIA) technique capable of detecting picomolar concentrations of Fe(II) was used to assess the redox state of iron in the suboxic zone and overlying oxic waters at a station 1300 km offshore. An elevated signal equivalent to 0.12-0.15 nM Fe(II), 21-24% of dissolved iron, was found only in the suboxic waters. Oxidation kinetics suggest that this Fe(II) is most likely produced by an in-situ process, as opposed to being transported from shelf sediment. The luminol-chemiluminescence Fe(II) method was systematically tested for inferences from reduced species potentially present in the suboxic zone to validate our Fe(II) results. Several species, V(IV) and V(111), produced significant signals, but considerations of the reducing state of the suboxic zone make it unlikely that reduced V is present. With additional information on the identity of the suboxic zone species provided by analysis of signal decay rate, it was determined that Fe(II) was the most reasonable source of the signal, and at minimum the chemiluminescence data allows us to set limits on the Fe(II) concentration in the offshore suboxic water column. (C) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

King, AL, Barbeau K.  2007.  Evidence for phytoplankton iron limitation in the southern California Current System. Marine Ecology-Progress Series. 342:91-103.   10.3354/meps342091   AbstractWebsite

Observations of phytoplankton iron limitation in the world's oceans have primarily been confined to high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll (HNLC) regimes, found in the western equatorial and subarctic Pacific, Southern Ocean, and coastal upwelling zones off California and Peru. We investigated the potential for phytoplankton iron limitation in coastal transition zones (50 to 200 km offshore) of the southern California Current System, a weak upwelling regime that is relatively low in nutrients (< 4 mu mol nitrate 1(-1)) and low in chlorophyll (< 1 mu g chl a 1(-1)). In grow-out incubation experiments conducted during summer, July 2003 and 2004, phytoplankton responded to nanomolar iron additions, despite the non-HNLC initial conditions, Observed changes in phytoplankton and nutrient parameters upon iron addition were significant, although markedly lower in amplitude relative to typical grow-out experiments in HNLC regimes. While we cannot disprove alternate explanations for the observed limitation of phytoplankton growth, such as a proximate grazing control, our results indicate that phytoplankton growth in the southern California Current System is, at times, limited by the supply of iron. Based on our findings and the results of previous studies in this region, we suggest that phytoplankton biomass is generally limited by the supply of nitrate, while iron, directly or indirectly, influences macronutrient utilization, community species composition, and phytoplankton spatial and temporal distribution.

Barbeau, K, Rue EL, Trick CG, Bruland KT, Butler A.  2003.  Photochemical reactivity of siderophores produced by marine heterotrophic bacteria and cyanobacteria based on characteristic Fe(III) binding groups. Limnology and Oceanography. 48:1069-1078. AbstractWebsite

Siderophores, high-affinity Fe(III) ligands produced by microorganisms to facilitate iron acquisition, might contribute significantly to dissolved Fe(III) complexation in ocean surface waters. In previous work, we demonstrated the photoreactivity of the ferric ion complexes of several alpha-hydroxy carboxylic acid-containing siderophores produced by heterotrophic marine bacteria. Here, we expand on our earlier studies and detail the photoreactivity of additional siderophores produced by both heterotrophic marine bacteria and marine cyanobacteria, making comparisons to synthetic and terrestrial siderophores that lack the alpha-hydroxy carboxylate group. Our results suggest that, in addition to secondary photochemical reaction pathways involving reactive oxygen species, direct photolysis of Fe(III)-siderophore complexes might be a significant source of Fe(II) and reactive Fe(III) in ocean surface waters. Our findings further indicate that the photoreactivity of siderophores is primarily determined by the chemical structure of the Fe(III) binding groups that they possess-hydroxamate, catecholate, or alpha-hydroxy carboxylate moieties. Hydroxamate groups are photochemically resistant regardless of Fe(III) complexation. Catecholates, in contrast, are susceptible to photooxidation in the uncomplexed form but stabilized against photooxidation when ferrated. alpha-Hydroxy carboxylate groups are stable as the uncomplexed acid, but when coordinated to Fe(III), these moieties undergo light-induced ligand oxidation and reduction of Fe(III) to Fe(II). These photochemical properties appear to determine the reactivity and fate of Fe(III)-binding siderophores in ocean surface waters, which in turn might significantly influence the biogeochemical cycling of iron.

Barbeau, K, Kujawinski EB, Moffett JW.  2001.  Remineralization and recycling of iron, thorium and organic carbon by heterotrophic marine protists in culture. Aquatic Microbial Ecology. 24:69-81.   10.3354/ame024069   AbstractWebsite

To characterize trace metal cycling in marine systems as mediated by heterotrophic protists, we conducted a series of laboratory experiments in 2-organism model systems consisting of bacteria and protistan grazers. Trace metal isotopes (Fe-59 and Th-234),C-14, and bulk organic carbon measurements were used to follow the chemical transformation of bacterial carbon and associated trace metals by several different grazer species. Results indicate that grazers were able to cause repartitioning of Th and regeneration of Fe from bacterial prey into the dissolved phase (<0.2 m), even in particle-rich laboratory cultures. For both Th and Fe, protist grazing led to the formation of relatively stable dissolved and colloidal metal-organic species. Metal/carbon ratios of the particle pool in some model systems with grazers were significantly altered, indicating a decoupling of trace metal and organic carbon cycling through the grazing process. Different protist species exhibited substantial variation (up to a factor of 10) in their ability to quantitatively remobilize trace metals from bacterial prey. The implications of these findings for trace metal cycling in marine systems are discussed.