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Journal Article
Earley, PJ, Swope BL, Barbeau K, Bundy R, McDonald JA, Rivera-Duarte I.  2014.  Life cycle contributions of copper from vessel painting and maintenance activities. Biofouling. 30:51-68.   10.1080/08927014.2013.841891   AbstractWebsite

Copper-based epoxy and ablative antifouling painted panels were exposed in natural seawater to evaluate environmental loading parameters. In situ loading factors including initial exposure, passive leaching, and surface refreshment were measured utilizing two protocols developed by the US Navy: the dome method and the in-water hull cleaning sampling method. Cleaning techniques investigated included a soft-pile carpet and a medium duty 3M((TM)) pad for fouling removal. Results show that the passive leach rates of copper peaked three days after both initial deployment and cleaning events (CEs), followed by a rapid decrease over about 15days and a slow approach to asymptotic levels on approximately day 30. Additionally, copper was more bioavailable during a CE in comparison to the passive leaching that immediately followed. A paint life cycle model quantifying annual copper loading estimates for each paint and cleaning method based on a three-year cycle of painting, episodic cleaning, and passive leaching is presented.

Barbeau, K, Moffett JW, Caron DA, Croot PL, Erdner DL.  1996.  Role of protozoan grazing in relieving iron limitation of phytoplankton. Nature. 380:61-64.   10.1038/380061a0   AbstractWebsite

RECENT evidence indicates that iron is a limiting factor in primary production in some areas of the oceans(1,2). In sea water, iron is largely present in the form of particulate and colloidal phases which are apparently unavailable for uptake by phytoplankton(3-5). Several mechanisms have been proposed whereby non-reactive iron may be converted into more labile forms (for example, thermal dissolution(6), photochemical reactions(7,8) and ligand complexation(9)). Here we report that digestion of colloidal iron in the acidic food vacuoles of protozoan grazers may be a mechanism for the generation of 'bioavailable' iron from refractory iron phases. We have demonstrated several grazer-mediated effects on colloidal ferrihydrite, including a decrease in colloid size, an increase in colloid lability as determined by competitive ligand-exchange techniques, and an increase in the bioavailability of colloids to iron-limited diatoms. These results indicate that protozoan grazers may significantly enhance the supply of iron to marine phytoplankton from terrestrial sources.