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Earley, PJ, Swope BL, Barbeau K, Bundy R, McDonald JA, Rivera-Duarte I.  2014.  Life cycle contributions of copper from vessel painting and maintenance activities. Biofouling. 30:51-68.   10.1080/08927014.2013.841891   AbstractWebsite

Copper-based epoxy and ablative antifouling painted panels were exposed in natural seawater to evaluate environmental loading parameters. In situ loading factors including initial exposure, passive leaching, and surface refreshment were measured utilizing two protocols developed by the US Navy: the dome method and the in-water hull cleaning sampling method. Cleaning techniques investigated included a soft-pile carpet and a medium duty 3M((TM)) pad for fouling removal. Results show that the passive leach rates of copper peaked three days after both initial deployment and cleaning events (CEs), followed by a rapid decrease over about 15days and a slow approach to asymptotic levels on approximately day 30. Additionally, copper was more bioavailable during a CE in comparison to the passive leaching that immediately followed. A paint life cycle model quantifying annual copper loading estimates for each paint and cleaning method based on a three-year cycle of painting, episodic cleaning, and passive leaching is presented.