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Teranes, JL, Bernasconi SM.  2005.  Factors controlling δ13C values of sedimentary carbon in hypertrophic Baldeggersee, Switzerland, and implications for interpreting isotope excursions in lake sedimentary records. Limnology and Oceanography. 50:914-922. AbstractWebsite

We use stable carbon isotope values (delta(13)C) in sedimented organic matter and carbonate as proxy indicators of productivity changes in a highly eutrophic to hypertrophic lake. Stable isotope data from a seasonally sampled sediment core recovered from Baldeggersee, Switzerland were compared with direct and inferred total phosphorus (P) concentrations. Carbon isotope values of sedimentary organic matter (delta(13)C(org)) in both seasonal varves and over the past 100 yr are not linearly related to total P concentrations, nor do they mirror observed trends in carbonate isotope values (delta(13)C(CaCO3)). Baldeggersee delta(13)C(org) values are influenced by both variations in the relative inputs of eukaryotic biomass, which becomes enriched in C-13 with increasing primary productivity, and the contribution of microbial biomass produced in the expanding anoxic bottom waters, which is typically very depleted in C-13. We also examined the fractionation within the organic matter-CO2-CaCO3 system, calculated as epsilon(total organic carbor(TOC)) = 10(3){[(delta(13)C(CaCO3) + 1,000)/(delta(13)C(org) + 1,000)] - 1}. Thresholds within the measured epsilon(TOC) values represent Baldeggersee trophic status more accurately than delta(13)C(org) or delta(13)C(CaCO3) values alone. In alkaline lakes with endogenic carbonate precipitates, STOC values can facilitate accurate interpretation of values and trends in organic carbon isotope data, and can help to better assess trophic history and lake remediation efforts in lake systems that have been heavily affected by cultural eutrophication.

Lotter, AF, Sturm M, Teranes JL, Wehrli B.  1997.  Varve formation since 1885 and high-resolution varve analyses in hypertrophic Baldeggersee (Switzerland). Aquatic Sciences. 59:304-325.   10.1007/bf02522361   AbstractWebsite

According to their microstratigraphical composition the laminated sediments of Baldeggersee are true varves. Two varve time-series from freeze cores taken in the deepest part (66 m) of Baldeggersee have been analysed for annual and seasonal layers. The varve time-series covers the period of 1885 to 1993. The two freeze-cores from Baldeggersee can be accurately correlated by means of distinct lay ers (e.g. marker varves, turbidites), lithological units, and varve measurements. The Baldeggersee varve chronology has been checked by independent high-resolution Cs-137 dating. Mobility of cesium has not been detected in Baldeggersee. A highly positive correlation between phosphorus concentration in the lake water and median grain size of calcite crystals has been observed and allows, together with the results of geochemical analyses, to hindcast the trophic state in Baldeggersee for periods where no limnological data are available. The main features of the Baldeggersee varve time-series can be summarized as follows: before 1885 there are packets of 5-10 varves interrupted by massive, homogeneous marl beds, indicating oscillating hypolimnetic oxygen levels until the lake ultimately became anoxic in 1885. Between 1885 and 1905 varves are thin, with a high carbonate content. Between 1905 and 1910 the thickness of varves increased steadily, and an increase in calcite grain size suggests a major step in eutrophication. Median grain size values increase again at the end of the 1940s, whereas the thickness of the seasonal lavers decreased between the early 1940s and the early 1960s. At the onset of the 1960s, during the time of highest epilimnetic phosphorus concentrations in Baldeggersee, the total phosphorus concentrations in the sediments as well as the varve thickness and the total accumulation rates all increased. At the beginning of the 1980s the median grain size decreased substantially as a result of lower phosphorus concentrations in Baldeggersee.