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2015
Brown, ZW, Casciotti KL, Pickart RS, Swift JH, Arrigo KR.  2015.  Aspects of the marine nitrogen cycle of the Chukchi Sea shelf and Canada Basin. Deep-Sea Research Part Ii-Topical Studies in Oceanography. 118:73-87.   10.1016/j.dsr2.2015.02.009   AbstractWebsite

As a highly productive, seasonally ice-covered sea with an expansive shallow continental shelf, the Chukchi Sea fuels high rates of sedimentary denitrification. This contributes to its fixed nitrogen (N) deficit relative to phosphorus (P), which is among the largest in the global ocean, making the Chukchi Sea severely N-limited during the phytoplankton growth season. Here, we examine aspects of the N cycle on the Chukchi Sea shelf and the downstream Canada Basin using nutrients, dissolved oxygen (O-2), and the stable isotopes of nitrate (NO3-). In the northward flow path across the Chukchi shelf, bottom waters experienced strong O-2 drawdown, from which we calculated a nitrification rate of 1.3 mmol m(-2) d(-1). This nitrification was likely primarily in sediments and directly fueled sedimentary denitrification, historically measured at similar rates. We observed significant accumulations of ammonium (NH4+) in bottom waters of the Chukchi shelf (up to > 5 mu M), which were inversely correlated with delta N-15(NO3), indicating a sediment source of N-15-enriched NH4+. This is consistent with a process of coupled partial nitrification-denitrification (CPND), which imparts significant N-15 enrichment and O-18 depletion to Pacific-origin NO3-. This CPND mechanism is consistent with a significant decrease in delta O-18(NO3) relative to Bering Sea source waters, indicating that at least 58% of NO3- populating the Pacific halocline was regenerated during its transit across the North Bering and Chukchi shelves, rather than arriving preformed from the Bering Sea slope. This Pacific-origin NO3- propagates into the Canada Basin and towards the North Atlantic, being significantly N-15-enriched and O-18-depleted relative to the underlying Atlantic waters. (C) 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

2005
Falkner, KK, Steele M, Woodgate RA, Swift JH, Aagaard K, Morison J.  2005.  Dissolved oxygen extrema in the Arctic Ocean halocline from the North Pole to the Lincoln Sea. Deep-Sea Research Part I-Oceanographic Research Papers. 52:1138-1154.   10.1016/j.dsr.2005.01.007   AbstractWebsite

Dissolved oxygen (02) profiling by new generation sensors was conducted in the Arctic Ocean via aircraft during May 2003 as part of the North Pole Environmental Observatory (NPEO) and Freshwater Switchyard (SWYD) projects. At stations extending from the North Pole to the shelf off Ellesmere Island, such profiles display what appear to be various 02 maxima (with concentrations 70% of saturation or less) over depths of 70-110 m in the halocline, corresponding to salinity and temperature ranges of 33.3-33.9 and -1.7 to -1.5 degrees C. The features appear to be widely distributed: Similar features based on bottle data were recently reported for a subset of the 1997-1998 SHEBA stations in the southern Canada Basin and in recent Beaufort Sea sensor profiles. Oxygen sensor data from August 2002 Chukchi Borderlands (CBC) and 1994 Arctic Ocean Section (AOS) projects suggest that such features arise from interleaving of shelf-derived, O(2)-depleted waters. This generates apparent oxygen maxima in Arctic Basin profiles that would otherwise trend more smoothly from near-saturation at the surface to lower concentrations at depth. For example, in the Eurasian Basin, relatively low O(2) concentrations are observed at salinities of about 34.2 and 34.7. The less saline variant is identified as part of the lower halocline, a layer originally identified by a Eurasian Basin minimum in "NO," which, in the Canadian Basin, is reinforced by additional inputs. The more saline and thus denser variant appears to arise from transformations of Atlantic source waters over the Barents and/or Kara shelves. Additional low-oxygen waters are generated in the vicinity of the Chukchi Borderlands, from Pacific shelf water outflows that interleave with Eurasian waters that flow over the Lomonosov Ridge into the Makarov Basin and then into the Canada Basin. One such input is associated with the well-known silicate maximum that historically has been associated with a salinity of approximate to 33.1. Above that (32 < S < 33), there is a layer moderately elevated in temperature (summer Bering Sea water) that we show is also O(2)-depleted. We propose that these low O(2) waters influence the NPEO and SWYD profiles to varying extents in a manner reflective of the large-scale circulation. The patterns of halocline circulation we infer from the intrusive features defy a simple boundary-following cyclonic flow. These results demonstrate the value of the improved resolution made feasible with continuous O(2) Profiling. In the drive to better understand variability and change in the Arctic Ocean, deployment of appropriately calibrated CTD-O(2) packages offers the promise of important new insights into circulation and ecosystem function. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2004
McLaughlin, FA, Carmack EC, Macdonald RW, Melling H, Swift JH, Wheeler PA, Sherr BF, Sherr EB.  2004.  The joint roles of Pacific and Atlantic-origin waters in the Canada Basin, 1997-1998. Deep-Sea Research Part I-Oceanographic Research Papers. 51:107-128.   10.1016/j.dsr.2003.09.010   AbstractWebsite

Physical and geochemical data collected weekly during the year-long 2800 km drift of the CCGS des Groseilliers show that Canada Basin waters, and in particular the composition of the halocline, can no longer be viewed as laterally homogeneous and in steady state. The halocline was thinner over the Mendeleyev Abyssal Plain and northern Chukchi Plateau. Here, Pacific-origin upper and middle halocline waters occupied the upper 80m of the water column and underlying Atlantic-origin lower halocline waters were fresher, colder and much more ventilated than observed in the past. These new observations of a sub-surface oxygen maximum suggest that outflow from the East Siberian Sea now supplies the Canada Basin lower halocline. East of the Northwind Ridge the halocline was thicker and appeared relatively unchanged. Here Pacific-origin upper and middle halocline waters occupied the top 225 m and Atlantic-origin lower halocline waters were identified by an oxygen minimum. The intensity of the Pacific-origin signal, characterized by a nutrient maximum, was strongest over the Chukchi Gap-the passage between the Chukchi Shelf and Plateau-and the Northwind Abyssal Plain and identified two winter-water spreading pathways. Atlantic-origin waters as much as 0.5degreesC warmer than the historical record were observed over the Chukchi Gap and also over the northern flank of the Chukchi Plateau. These observations signaled that warm-anomaly Fram Strait Branch (FSB) waters, first observed upstream in the Nansen Basin in 1990, had arrived downstream in the Canada Basin eight years later and also indicate two routes whereby FSB waters enter the southern Canada Basin. Although samples were collected throughout one annual cycle, seasonal effects were small and confined to the upper 50 m of the water column. These data show Canada Basin waters are in transition, responding to the effects of upstream change in atmospheric and oceanic circulation. Crown Copyright (C) 2003 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.