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Talley, LD, Feely RA, Sloyan BM, Wanninkhof R, Baringer MO, Bullister JL, Carlson CA, Doney SC, Fine RA, Firing E, Gruber N, Hansell DA, Ishii M, Johnson GC, Katsumata K, Key RM, Kramp M, Langdon C, Macdonald AM, Mathis JT, McDonagh EL, Mecking S, Millero FJ, Mordy CW, Nakano T, Sabine CL, Smethie WM, Swift JH, Tanhua T, Thurnherr AM, Warner MJ, Zhang J-Z.  2016.  Changes in Ocean Heat, Carbon Content, and Ventilation: A Review of the First Decade of GO-SHIP Global Repeat Hydrography. Annual Review of Marine Science. 8:185-215.   10.1146/annurev-marine-052915-100829   AbstractWebsite

Global ship-based programs, with highly accurate, full water column physical and biogeochemical observations repeated decadally since the 1970s, provide a crucial resource for documenting ocean change. The ocean, a central component of Earth's climate system, is taking up most of Earth's excess anthropogenic heat, with about 19% of this excess in the abyssal ocean beneath 2,000 m, dominated by Southern Ocean warming. The ocean also has taken up about 27% of anthropogenic carbon, resulting in acidification of the upper ocean. Increased stratification has resulted in a decline in oxygen and increase in nutrients in the Northern Hemisphere thermocline and an expansion of tropical oxygen minimum zones. Southern Hemisphere thermocline oxygen increased in the 2000s owing to stronger wind forcingand ventilation. The most recent decade of global hydrography has mapped dissolved organic carbon, a large, bioactive reservoir, for the first time and quantified its contribution to export production (∼20%) and deep-ocean oxygen utilization. Ship-based measurements also show that vertical diffusivity increases from a minimum in the thermocline to a maximum within the bottom 1,500 m, shifting our physical paradigm of the ocean's overturning circulation.

Mawji, E, Schlitzer R, Dodas EM, Abadie C, Abouchami W, Anderson RF, Baars O, Bakker K, Baskaran M, Bates NR et al..  2015.  The GEOTRACES Intermediate Data Product 2014. Marine Chemistry. 177:1-8.   10.1016/j.marchem.2015.04.005   AbstractWebsite

The GEOTRACES Intermediate Data Product 2014 (IDP2014) is the first publicly available data product of the international GEOTRACES programme, and contains data measured and quality controlled before the end of 2013. It consists of two parts: (1) a compilation of digital data for more than 200 trace elements and isotopes (TEls) as well as classical hydrographic parameters, and (2) the eGEOTRACES Electronic Atlas providing a strongly inter-linked on-line atlas including more than 300 section plots and 90 animated 3D scenes. The IDP2014 covers the Atlantic, Arctic, and Indian oceans, exhibiting highest data density in the Atlantic. The TEI data in the IDP2014 are quality controlled by careful assessment of intercalibration results and multi-laboratory data comparisons at cross-over stations. The digital data are provided in several formats, including ASCII spreadsheet, Excel spreadsheet, netCDF, and Ocean Data View collection. In addition to the actual data values the IDP2014 also contains data quality flags and 1-sigma data error values where available. Quality flags and error values are useful for data filtering. Metadata about data originators, analytical methods and original publications related to the data are linked to the data in an easily accessible way. The eGEOTRACES Electronic Atlas is the visual representation of the IDP2014 data providing section plots and a new kind of animated 3D scenes. The basin-wide 3D scenes allow for viewing of data from many cruises at the same time, thereby providing quick overviews of large-scale tracer distributions. In addition, the 3D scenes provide geographical and bathymetric context that is crucial for the interpretation and assessment of observed tracer plumes, as well as for making inferences about controlling processes. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

Brown, ZW, Casciotti KL, Pickart RS, Swift JH, Arrigo KR.  2015.  Aspects of the marine nitrogen cycle of the Chukchi Sea shelf and Canada Basin. Deep-Sea Research Part Ii-Topical Studies in Oceanography. 118:73-87.   10.1016/j.dsr2.2015.02.009   AbstractWebsite

As a highly productive, seasonally ice-covered sea with an expansive shallow continental shelf, the Chukchi Sea fuels high rates of sedimentary denitrification. This contributes to its fixed nitrogen (N) deficit relative to phosphorus (P), which is among the largest in the global ocean, making the Chukchi Sea severely N-limited during the phytoplankton growth season. Here, we examine aspects of the N cycle on the Chukchi Sea shelf and the downstream Canada Basin using nutrients, dissolved oxygen (O-2), and the stable isotopes of nitrate (NO3-). In the northward flow path across the Chukchi shelf, bottom waters experienced strong O-2 drawdown, from which we calculated a nitrification rate of 1.3 mmol m(-2) d(-1). This nitrification was likely primarily in sediments and directly fueled sedimentary denitrification, historically measured at similar rates. We observed significant accumulations of ammonium (NH4+) in bottom waters of the Chukchi shelf (up to > 5 mu M), which were inversely correlated with delta N-15(NO3), indicating a sediment source of N-15-enriched NH4+. This is consistent with a process of coupled partial nitrification-denitrification (CPND), which imparts significant N-15 enrichment and O-18 depletion to Pacific-origin NO3-. This CPND mechanism is consistent with a significant decrease in delta O-18(NO3) relative to Bering Sea source waters, indicating that at least 58% of NO3- populating the Pacific halocline was regenerated during its transit across the North Bering and Chukchi shelves, rather than arriving preformed from the Bering Sea slope. This Pacific-origin NO3- propagates into the Canada Basin and towards the North Atlantic, being significantly N-15-enriched and O-18-depleted relative to the underlying Atlantic waters. (C) 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Mills, MM, Brown ZW, Lowry KE, van Dijken GL, Becker S, Pal S, Benitez-Nelson CR, Downer MM, Strong AL, Swift JH, Pickart RS, Arrigo KR.  2015.  Impacts of low phytoplankton NO3- :PO43- utilization ratios over the Chukchi Shelf, Arctic Ocean. Deep-Sea Research Part Ii-Topical Studies in Oceanography. 118:105-121.   10.1016/j.dsr2.2015.02.007   AbstractWebsite

The impact of Arctic denitrification is seen in the extremely low values for the geochemical tracer of microbial nitrogen (N) cycle source/sink processes N**. (Mordy at al. 2010). The utility of N** as an oceanic tracer of microbial N cycle processes, however, relies on the assumption that phytoplankton utilize dissolved N and P in Redfield proportions, and thus changes in N** are due to either N-2-fixation or denitrification. We present results from two cruises to the Chukchi Sea that quantify nutrient drawdown, nutrient deficits, and particulate nutrient concentrations to estimate production over the Chukchi Shelf and document lower than Redfield N:P utilization ratios by phytoplankton. These low ratios are used to calculate N** (assuming a Redfield NO3- :Pa-4(3-) utilization ratio) and N**(NR) (using the measured particulate N:P ratios) and, combined with current flow speed and direction measurements, to diagnose denitrification rates on the Chukchi Shelf. Our estimates of denitrification rates are up to 40% higher when Redfield proportions are used. However, the denitrification rates we calculate using N**(NR) are still higher than previous estimates (up to 8 fold) of denitrification on the Chukchi shelf. These estimates suggest that Arctic shelves may be a greater sink of oceanic N than previously thought. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Williams, NL, Feely RA, Sabine CL, Dickson AG, Swift JH, Talley LD, Russell JL.  2015.  Quantifying anthropogenic carbon inventory changes in the Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean. Marine Chemistry. 174:147-160.   10.1016/j.marchem.2015.06.015   AbstractWebsite

The Southern Ocean plays a major role in mediating the uptake, transport, and long-term storage of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) into the deep ocean. Examining the magnitude and spatial distribution of this oceanic carbon uptake is critical to understanding how the earth's carbon system will react to continued increases in this greenhouse gas. Here, we use the extended multiple linear regression technique to quantify the total and anthropogenic change in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) along the S04P and P16S CLIVAR/U.S. Global Ocean Carbon and Repeat Hydrography Program lines south of 67 degrees S in the Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean between 1992 and 2011 using discrete bottle measurements from repeat occupations. Along the S04P section, which is located in the seasonal sea ice zone south of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current in the Pacific, the anthropogenic component of the DIC increase from 1992 to 2011 is mostly found in the Antarctic Surface Water (AASW, upper 100 m), while the increase in DIC below the mixed layer in the Circumpolar Deep Water can be primarily attributed to either a slowdown in circulation or decreased ventilation of deeper, high CO2 waters. In the AASW we calculate an anthropogenic increase in DIC of 12-18 mu mol kg(-1) and an average storage rate of anthropogenic CO2 of 0.10 +/- 0.02 mol m(-2) yr(-1) for this region compared to a global average of 0.5 +/- 0.2 mol m(-2) yr(-1). In surface waters this anthropogenic CO2 uptake results in an average pH decrease of 0.0022 +/- 0.0004 pH units yr(-1), a 0.47 +/- 0.10% yr(-1) decrease in the saturation state of aragonite (Omega(Aragonite)) and a 2.0 +/- 0.7 m yr(-1) shoaling of the aragonite saturation horizons (calculated for the Omega(Aragonite) = 1.3 contour). (C) 2015 Published by Elsevier B.V.

Arrigo, KR, Perovich DK, Pickart RS, Brown ZW, van Dijken GL, Lowry KE, Mills MM, Palmer MA, Balch WM, Bates NR, Benitez-Nelson CR, Brownlee E, Frey KE, Laney SR, Mathis J, Matsuoka A, Greg Mitchell B, Moore GWK, Reynolds RA, Sosik HM, Swift JH.  2014.  Phytoplankton blooms beneath the sea ice in the Chukchi sea. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography. 105:1-16.   10.1016/j.dsr2.2014.03.018   AbstractWebsite

In the Arctic Ocean, phytoplankton blooms on continental shelves are often limited by light availability, and are therefore thought to be restricted to waters free of sea ice. During July 2011 in the Chukchi Sea, a large phytoplankton bloom was observed beneath fully consolidated pack ice and extended from the ice edge to >100 km into the pack. The bloom was composed primarily of diatoms, with biomass reaching 1291 mg chlorophyll a m−2 and rates of carbon fixation as high as 3.7 g C m−2 d−1. Although the sea ice where the bloom was observed was near 100% concentration and 0.8–1.2 m thick, 30–40% of its surface was covered by melt ponds that transmitted 4-fold more light than adjacent areas of bare ice, providing sufficient light for phytoplankton to bloom. Phytoplankton growth rates associated with the under-ice bloom averaged 0.9 d−1 and were as high as 1.6 d−1. We argue that a thinning sea ice cover with more numerous melt ponds over the past decade has enhanced light penetration through the sea ice into the upper water column, favoring the development of these blooms. These observations, coupled with additional biogeochemical evidence, suggest that phytoplankton blooms are currently widespread on nutrient-rich Arctic continental shelves and that satellite-based estimates of annual primary production in waters where under-ice blooms develop are ~10-fold too low. These massive phytoplankton blooms represent a marked shift in our understanding of Arctic marine ecosystems.

Downes, SM, Key RM, Orsi AH, Speer KG, Swift JH.  2012.  Tracing Southwest Pacific Bottom Water Using Potential Vorticity and Helium-3. Journal of Physical Oceanography. 42:2153-2168.   10.1175/jpo-d-12-019.1   AbstractWebsite

This study uses potential vorticity and other tracers to identify the pathways of the densest form of Circumpolar Deep Water in the South Pacific, termed "Southwest Pacific Bottom Water" (SPBW), along the 28.2 kg m(-3) surface. This study focuses on the potential vorticity signals associated with three major dynamical processes occurring in the vicinity of the Pacific-Antarctic Ridge: 1) the strong flow of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), 2) lateral eddy stirring, and 3) heat and stratification changes in bottom waters induced by hydrothermal vents. These processes result in southward and downstream advection of low potential vorticity along rising isopycnal surfaces. Using delta He-3 released from the hydrothermal vents, the influence of volcanic activity on the SPBW may be traced across the South Pacific along the path of the ACC to Drake Passage. SPBW also flows within the southern limb of the Ross Gyre, reaching the Antarctic Slope in places and contributes via entrainment to the formation of Antarctic Bottom Water. Finally, it is shown that the magnitude and location of the potential vorticity signals associated with SPBW have endured over at least the last two decades, and that they are unique to the South Pacific sector.

Arrigo, KR, Perovich DK, Pickart RS, Brown ZW, van Dijken GL, Lowry KE, Mills MM, Palmer MA, Balch WM, Bahr F, Bates NR, Benitez-Nelson C, Bowler B, Brownlee E, Ehn JK, Frey KE, Garley R, Laney SR, Lubelczyk L, Mathis J, Matsuoka A, Mitchell GB, Moore GWK, Ortega-Retuerta E, Pal S, Polashenski CM, Reynolds RA, Schieber B, Sosik HM, Stephens M, Swift JH.  2012.  Massive Phytoplankton Blooms Under Arctic Sea Ice. Science. 336:1408.   10.1126/science.1215065   AbstractWebsite

Phytoplankton blooms over Arctic Ocean continental shelves are thought to be restricted to waters free of sea ice. Here, we document a massive phytoplankton bloom beneath fully consolidated pack ice far from the ice edge in the Chukchi Sea, where light transmission has increased in recent decades because of thinning ice cover and proliferation of melt ponds. The bloom was characterized by high diatom biomass and rates of growth and primary production. Evidence suggests that under-ice phytoplankton blooms may be more widespread over nutrient-rich Arctic continental shelves and that satellite-based estimates of annual primary production in these waters may be underestimated by up to 10-fold.

Anderson, LG, Tanhua T, Bjork G, Hjalmarsson S, Jones EP, Jutterstrom S, Rudels B, Swift JH, Wahlstom I.  2010.  Arctic ocean shelf-basin interaction: An active continental shelf CO2 pump and its impact on the degree of calcium carbonate solubility. Deep-Sea Research Part I-Oceanographic Research Papers. 57:869-879.   10.1016/j.dsr.2010.03.012   AbstractWebsite

The Arctic Ocean has wide shelf areas with extensive biological activity including a high primary productivity and an active microbial loop within the surface sediment. This in combination with brine production during sea ice formation result in the decay products exiting from the shelf into the deep basin typically at a depth of about 150 m and over a wide salinity range centered around S similar to 33. We present data from the Beringia cruise in 2005 along a section in the Canada Basin from the continental margin north of Alaska towards the north and from the International Siberian Shelf Study in 2008 (ISSS-08) to illustrate the impact of these processes. The water rich in decay products, nutrients and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), exits the shelf not only from the Chukchi Sea, as has been shown earlier, but also from the East Siberian Sea. The excess of DIC found in the Canada Basin in a depth range of about 50-250 m amounts to 90 +/- 40 g C m(-2). If this excess is integrated over the whole Canadian Basin the excess equals 320 +/- 140 x 10(12) g C. The high DIC concentration layer also has low pH and consequently a low degree of calcium carbonate saturation, with minimum aragonite values of 60% saturation and calcite values just below saturation. The mean age of the waters in the top 300 m was calculated using the transit time distribution method. By applying a future exponential increase of atmospheric CO2 the invasion of anthropogenic carbon into these waters will result in an under-saturated surface water with respect to aragonite by the year 2050, even without any freshening caused by melting sea ice or increased river discharge. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Codispoti, LA, Flagg CN, Swift JH.  2009.  Hydrographic conditions during the 2004 SBI process experiments. Deep-Sea Research Part Ii-Topical Studies in Oceanography. 56:1144-1163.   10.1016/j.dsr2.2008.10.013   AbstractWebsite

Western Arctic Shelf-Basin Interactions (SBI) process experiment cruises were conducted during spring and summer in 2002 and 2004. A comparison of the 2004 data with the results from 2002 reveals several similarities but also some distinct differences. Similarities included the following: (1) Dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) (ammonium+nitrate+nitrite) limited phytoplankton growth in both years, suggesting that the fixed-N transport through Bering Strait is a major control on biological productivity. (2) The head of Barrow Canyon was a region of enhanced biological production. (3) Plume-like nutrient maxima and N** minima (a signal of sedimentary denitrification) extending from the shelf into the interior were common except at our easternmost section where the nearshore end of these features intersected the slope. (4) Particularly during summer, oxygen supersaturations were common in or just above the shallow nitracline. (5) Surface waters at our deepest stations were already depleted in nitrate, ammonium and urea during our springtime observations. A major difference between the 2 years was the greater influence of warm, relatively low-nutrient Alaska Coastal Water (ACW) during 2004 entering the region via Bering Strait. This increased inflow of ACW may have reduced photic zone nutrient concentrations. The differences in water temperature and nutrients were most pronounced in the upper similar to 100 db, and the increased influence of warm water in 2004 relative to 2002 was most evident in our East Barrow (EB) section. Although the EB data were collected on essentially the same year-days (29 July-4 August 2002 vs. 29 July-6 August 2004), the surface layers were up to 5 degrees warmer in 2004. While the stronger inflow of ACW in 2004 may have reduced the autochthonous nutrient supply, rates of primary production, bacterial production, and particulate organic carbon export were higher in 2004. This conundrum might be explained by differences in the availability of light. Although, springtime ice thicknesses were greater in 2004 than in 2002, snow cover was significantly less and may have more than compensated for the modest differences in ice thickness vis a vis light penetration. In addition, there was a rapid and extensive retreat of the ice cover in summer 2004. Increased light penetration in 2004 may have allowed phytoplankton to increase utilization of nutrients in the shallow nitracline. In addition, more light combined with warmer temperatures could enhance that fraction of primary production supported by nutrient recycling. Enhanced subsurface primary production during summer 2004 is suggested not only by the results of incubation experiments but by more extreme dissolved oxygen supersaturations in the vicinity of the nitracline. We cannot, however, ignore aliasing that might arise from somewhat different station distributions and timing. It is also possible that the rapid ice retreat and warmer temperatures lead to an acceleration in the seasonal progression of biological processes such that the summer 2004 SBI Process Cruise (HLY 04-03) experiment was observing a state that might have existed a few weeks after completion of the 2002 summer cruise (HLY 02-03). Despite these complications, there is little doubt that biological conditions at the ensemble of hydrographic stations occupied in 2004 during the SBI Process Cruises differed significantly from those at the stations occupied in 2002. (c) 2008 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Aagaard, K, Andersen R, Swift J, Johnson J.  2008.  A large eddy in the central Arctic Ocean. Geophysical Research Letters. 35   10.1029/2008gl033461   AbstractWebsite

[1] Long-term moored measurements of temperature, salinity, and velocity over the abyssal plain near the North Pole show a rich array of eddy-like structures over a wide range of depths. Here we demonstrate an anticyclone that extends from the surface to at least 1700 m, is about 60 km across, and has a likely origin along the Eurasian continental margin.

Jutterstrom, S, Jeansson E, Anderson LG, Bellerby R, Jones EP, Smethie WM, Swift JH.  2008.  Evaluation of anthropogenic carbon in the Nordic Seas using observed relationships of N, P and C versus CFCs. Progress in Oceanography. 78:78-84.   10.1016/j.pocean.2007.06.001   AbstractWebsite

Several methods to compute the anthropogenic component of total dissolved inorganic carbon (C-T(anthro)) the ocean have been reported, all in some way deducing (a) the effect by the natural processes, and (b) the background concentration in the pre-industrial scenario. In this work we present a method of calculating C-T(anthro) using nutrient and CFC data, which takes advantage of the linear relationships found between nitrate (N), phosphate (P) and CFC-11 in the Nordic Seas sub-surface waters. The basis of the method is that older water has lower CFC-11 concentration and also has been exposed to more sinking organic matter that has decayed, resulting in the slopes of P versus CFC-11 and N versus CFC-11 being close to the classic Redfield ratio of 1:16. Combining this with the slope in total alkalinity (A(T)) versus CFC-11 to correct for the dissolution of metal carbonates gives us the possibility to deduce the concentration of anthropogenic C-T in the Nordic Seas. This further allowed us to compute the inventory of anthropogenic C-T below 250 m in the Nordic Seas in spring 2002, to similar to 1.2 Gt C. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Jones, EP, Anderson LG, Jutterstrom S, Swift JH.  2008.  Sources and distribution of fresh water in the East Greenland Current. Progress in Oceanography. 78:37-44.   10.1016/j.pocean.2007.06.003   AbstractWebsite

Fresh water flowing from the Arctic Ocean via the East Greenland Current influences deep water formation in the Nordic Seas as well as the salinity of the surface and deep waters flowing from there. This fresh water has three sources: Pacific water (relatively fresh cf. Atlantic water), river runoff, and sea ice meltwater. To determine the relative amounts of the three sources of fresh water, in May 2002 we collected water samples across the East Greenland Current in sections from 81.5 degrees N to the Irminger Sea south of Denmark Strait. We used nitrate-phosphate relationships to distinguish Pacific waters from Atlantic waters, salinity to obtain the sum of sea ice melt water and river runoff water, and total alkalinity to distinguish the latter. River runoff contributed the largest part of the total fresh water component, in some regions with some inventories exceeding 12 m. Pacific fresh water (Pacific source water S similar to 32 cf Atlantic source water S similar to 34.9) typically provided about 1/3 of the river runoff contribution. Sea ice meltwater was very nearly non-existent in the surface waters of all sections, likely at least in part as a result of the samples being collected before the onset of the melt season. The fresh water from the Arctic Ocean was strongly confined to near the Greenland coast. We thus conjecture that the main source of fresh water from the Arctic Ocean most strongly impacting deep convection in the Nordic Seas would be sea ice as opposed to fresh water in the liquid phase, i.e., river runoff, Pacific fresh water, and sea ice meltwater. Crown Copyright (C) 2008 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Jeansson, E, Jutterstroem S, Rudels B, Anderson LG, Olsson KA, Jones EP, Smethie WM, Swift JH.  2008.  Sources to the East Greenland Current and its contribution to the Denmark Strait Overflow. Progress in Oceanography. 78:12-28.   10.1016/j.pocean.2007.08.031   AbstractWebsite

Data from the East Greenland Current in 2002 are evaluated using optimum multiparameter analysis. The current is followed from north of Fram Strait to the Denmark Strait Sill and the contributions of different source waters, in mass fractions, are deduced. From the results it can be concluded that, at least in spring 2002, the East Greenland Current was the main source for the waters found at the Denmark Strait Sill, contributing to the overflow into the North Atlantic. The East Greenland Current carried water masses from different source regions in the Arctic Ocean, the West Spitsbergen Current and the Greenland Sea. The results agree well with the known circulation of the western Nordic Seas but also add knowledge both to the quantification and to the mixing processes, showing the importance of the locally formed Greenland Sea Arctic Intermediate Water for the East Greenland Current and the Denmark Strait. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Marnela, M, Rudels B, Olsson KA, Anderson LG, Jeansson E, Torres DJ, Messias MJ, Swift JH, Watson AJ.  2008.  Transports of Nordic Seas water masses and excess SF6 through Fram Strait to the Arctic Ocean. Progress in Oceanography. 78:1-11.   10.1016/j.pocean.2007.06.004   AbstractWebsite

To determine the exchanges between the Nordic Seas and the Arctic Ocean through Fram Strait is one of the most important aspects, and one of the major challenges, in describing the circulation in the Arctic Mediterranean Sea. Especially the northward transport of Arctic Intermediate Water (AIW) from the Nordic Seas into the Arctic Ocean is little known. In the two-ship study of the circulation in the Nordic Seas, Arctic Ocean - 2002, the Swedish icebreaker Oden operated in the ice-covered areas in and north of Fram Strait and in the western margins of Greenland and Iceland seas, while RV Knorr of Woods Hole worked in the ice free part of the Nordic Seas. Here two hydrographic sections obtained by Oden, augmented by tracer and velocity measurements with Lowered Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (LADCP), are examined. The first section, reaching from the Svalbard shelf across the Yermak Plateau, covers the region north of Svalbard where inflow to the Arctic Ocean takes place. The second, western, section spans the outflow area extending from west of the Yermak Plateau onto the Greenland shelf. Geostrophic and LADCP derived velocities are both used to estimate the exchanges of water masses between the Nordic Seas and the Arctic Ocean. The geostrophic computations indicate a total flow of 3.6 Sv entering the Arctic on the eastern section. The southward flow on the western section is found to be 5.1 Sv. The total inflow to the Arctic Ocean obtained using the LADCP derived velocities is much larger, 13.6 Sv, and the southward transport on the western section is 13.7 Sv, equal to the northward transport north of Svalbard. Sulphur hexafluoricle (SF(6)) originating from a tracer release experiment in the Greenland Sea in 1996 has become a marker for the circulation of AIW. From the geostrophic velocities we obtain 0.5 Sv and from the LADCP derived velocities 2.8 Sv of AIW flowing into the Arctic. The annual transport of SF(6) into the Arctic Ocean derived from geostrophy is 5 kg/year, which is of the same magnitude as the observed total annual transport into the North Atlantic, while the LADCP measurements (19 kg/year) imply that it is substantially larger. Little SF(6) was found on the western section, confirming the dominance of the Arctic Ocean water masses and indicating that the major recirculation in Fram Strait takes place farther to the south. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Jones, EP, Anderson LG, Jutterstrom S, Mintrop L, Swift JH.  2008.  Pacific freshwater, river water and sea ice meltwater across Arctic Ocean basins: Results from the 2005 Beringia Expedition. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans. 113   10.1029/2007jc004124   AbstractWebsite

Pacific water, sea ice meltwater, and river water are the primary sources of freshwater in the Arctic Ocean. We have determined their relative fractions on a transect across the Arctic Ocean Section 2005 Expedition onboard IB Oden, which took place from 21 August to 23 September 2005. The transect began north of Alaska, continued through the central Canada Basin to the Alpha Ridge and into the Makarov Basin, and ended in Amundsen Basin. Pacific freshwater and river water were the major sources of freshwater throughout the central Canada Basin and into Makarov Basin, with river water fractions sometimes considerably higher than Pacific water in the top similar to 50 m. Pacific freshwater extended to depths of about 200 m. Pacific water found over the Alpha Ridge and in the Amundsen Basin is suggested to have been transported there in the Transpolar Drift. The inventories of Pacific freshwater and river water were roughly constant along the section through most of the Canada and Makarov basins. River water fractions were greater than those of Pacific freshwater in the Amundsen Basin. Sea ice meltwater fractions were negative (reflecting net ice formation) or near zero throughout most of the section. A comparison of freshwater inventories with those at stations occupied during expeditions in 1991, 1994, and 1996 indicated an increase in river water inventories in the Makarov and Amundsen basins on the Eurasian side of the Arctic Ocean.

Woodgate, RA, Aagaard K, Swift JH, Smethie WM, Falkner KK.  2007.  Atlantic water circulation over the Mendeleev Ridge and Chukchi Borderland from thermohaline intrusions and water mass properties. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans. 112   10.1029/2005jc003416   AbstractWebsite

[ 1] Hydrographic and tracer data from 2002 illustrate Atlantic water pathways and variability in the Mendeleev Ridge and Chukchi Borderland (CBLMR) region of the Arctic Ocean. Thermohaline double diffusive intrusions (zigzags) dominate both the Fram Strait (FSBW) and Barents Sea Branch Waters (BSBW) in the region. We show that details of the zigzags' temperature-salinity structure partially describe the water masses forming the intrusions. Furthermore, as confirmed by chemical tracers, the zigzags' peaks contain the least altered water, allowing assessment of the temporal history of the Atlantic waters. Whilst the FSBW shows the 1990s warming and then a slight cooling, the BSBW has continuously cooled and freshened over a similar time period. The newest boundary current waters are found west of the Mendeleev Ridge in 2002. Additionally, we show the zigzag structures can fingerprint various water masses, including the boundary current. Using this, tracer data and the advection of the 1990s warming, we conclude the strongly topographically steered boundary current, order 50 km wide and found between the 1500 m and 2500 m isobaths, crosses the Mendeleev Ridge north of 80 degrees N, loops south around the Chukchi Abyssal Plain and north around the Chukchi Rise, with the 1990s warming having reached the northern ( but not the southern) Northwind Ridge by 2002. Pacific waters influence the Atlantic layers near the shelf and over the Chukchi Rise. The Northwind Abyssal Plain is comparatively stagnant, being ventilated only slowly from the north. There is no evidence of significant boundary current flow through the Chukchi Gap.

Bjork, G, Jakobsson M, Rudes B, Swift JH, Anderson L, Darby DA, Backman J, Coakley B, Winsor P, Polyak L, Edwards M.  2007.  Bathymetry and deep-water exchange across the central Lomonosov Ridge at 88-89°N. Deep-Sea Research Part I-Oceanographic Research Papers. 54:1197-1208.   10.1016/j.dsr.2007.05.010   AbstractWebsite

Seafloor mapping of the central Lomonosov Ridge using a multibeam echo-sounder during the Beringia/Healy-Oden Trans-Arctic Expedition (HOTRAX) 2005 shows that a channel across the ridge has a substantially shallower sill depth than the similar to 2500 m indicated in present bathymetric maps. The multibeam survey along the ridge crest shows a maximum sill depth of about 1870 m. A previously hypothesized exchange of deep water from the Amundsen Basin to the Makarov Basin in this area is not confirmed. On the contrary, evidence of a deep-water flow from the Makarov to the Amundsen Basin was observed, indicating the existence of a new pathway for Canadian Basin Deep Water toward the Atlantic Ocean. Sediment data show extensive current activity along the ridge crest and along the rim of a local Intra Basin within the ridge structure.(c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Woodgate, RA, Aagaard K, Swift JH, Falkner KK, Smethie WM.  2005.  Pacific ventilation of the Arctic Ocean's lower halocline by upwelling and diapycnal mixing over the continental margin. Geophysical Research Letters. 32   10.1029/2005gl023999   AbstractWebsite

Pacific winter waters, a major source of nutrients and buoyancy to the Arctic Ocean, are thought to ventilate the Arctic's lower halocline either by injection (isopycnal or penetrative) of cold saline shelf waters, or by cooling and freshening Atlantic waters upwelled onto the shelf. Although ventilation at salinity ( S) > 34 psu has previously been attributed to hypersaline polynya waters, temperature, salinity, nutrient and tracer data suggest instead that much of the western Arctic's lower halocline is in fact influenced by a diapycnal mixing of Pacific winter waters ( with S similar to 33.1 psu) and denser eastern Arctic halocline ( Atlantic) waters, the mixing taking place possibly over the northern Chukchi shelf/slope. Estimates from observational data confirm that sufficient quantities of Atlantic water may be upwelled to mix with the inflowing Pacific waters, with volumes implying the halocline over the Chukchi Borderland region may be renewed on timescales of order a year.

Swift, JH, Aagaard K, Timokhov L, Nikiforov EG.  2005.  Long-term variability of Arctic Ocean waters: Evidence from a reanalysis of the EWG data set. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans. 110   10.1029/2004jc002312   AbstractWebsite

We have examined interannual to decadal variability of water properties in the Arctic Ocean using an enhanced version of the 1948-1993 data released earlier under the Gore-Chernomyrdin environmental bilateral agreement. That earlier data set utilized gridded fields with decadal time resolution, whereas we have developed a data set with annual resolution. We find that beginning about 1976, most of the upper Arctic Ocean became significantly saltier, possibly related to thinning of the arctic ice cover. There are also indications that a more local upper ocean salinity increase in the Eurasian Basin about 1989 may not have originated on the shelf, as had been suggested earlier. In addition to the now well-established warming of the Atlantic layer during the early 1990s, there was a similar cyclonically propagating warm event during the 1950s. More remarkable, however, was a pervasive Atlantic layer warming throughout most of the Arctic Ocean from 1964-1969, possibly related to reduced vertical heat loss associated with increased upper ocean stratification. A cold period prevailed during most of the 1970s and 1980s, with several very cold events appearing to originate near the Kara and Laptev shelves. Finally, we find that the silicate maximum in the central Arctic Ocean halocline eroded abruptly in the mid-1980s, demonstrating that the redistribution of Pacific waters and the warming of the Atlantic layer reported from other observations during the 1990s were distinct events separated in time by perhaps 5 years. We have made the entire data set publicly available.

Falkner, KK, Steele M, Woodgate RA, Swift JH, Aagaard K, Morison J.  2005.  Dissolved oxygen extrema in the Arctic Ocean halocline from the North Pole to the Lincoln Sea. Deep-Sea Research Part I-Oceanographic Research Papers. 52:1138-1154.   10.1016/j.dsr.2005.01.007   AbstractWebsite

Dissolved oxygen (02) profiling by new generation sensors was conducted in the Arctic Ocean via aircraft during May 2003 as part of the North Pole Environmental Observatory (NPEO) and Freshwater Switchyard (SWYD) projects. At stations extending from the North Pole to the shelf off Ellesmere Island, such profiles display what appear to be various 02 maxima (with concentrations 70% of saturation or less) over depths of 70-110 m in the halocline, corresponding to salinity and temperature ranges of 33.3-33.9 and -1.7 to -1.5 degrees C. The features appear to be widely distributed: Similar features based on bottle data were recently reported for a subset of the 1997-1998 SHEBA stations in the southern Canada Basin and in recent Beaufort Sea sensor profiles. Oxygen sensor data from August 2002 Chukchi Borderlands (CBC) and 1994 Arctic Ocean Section (AOS) projects suggest that such features arise from interleaving of shelf-derived, O(2)-depleted waters. This generates apparent oxygen maxima in Arctic Basin profiles that would otherwise trend more smoothly from near-saturation at the surface to lower concentrations at depth. For example, in the Eurasian Basin, relatively low O(2) concentrations are observed at salinities of about 34.2 and 34.7. The less saline variant is identified as part of the lower halocline, a layer originally identified by a Eurasian Basin minimum in "NO," which, in the Canadian Basin, is reinforced by additional inputs. The more saline and thus denser variant appears to arise from transformations of Atlantic source waters over the Barents and/or Kara shelves. Additional low-oxygen waters are generated in the vicinity of the Chukchi Borderlands, from Pacific shelf water outflows that interleave with Eurasian waters that flow over the Lomonosov Ridge into the Makarov Basin and then into the Canada Basin. One such input is associated with the well-known silicate maximum that historically has been associated with a salinity of approximate to 33.1. Above that (32 < S < 33), there is a layer moderately elevated in temperature (summer Bering Sea water) that we show is also O(2)-depleted. We propose that these low O(2) waters influence the NPEO and SWYD profiles to varying extents in a manner reflective of the large-scale circulation. The patterns of halocline circulation we infer from the intrusive features defy a simple boundary-following cyclonic flow. These results demonstrate the value of the improved resolution made feasible with continuous O(2) Profiling. In the drive to better understand variability and change in the Arctic Ocean, deployment of appropriately calibrated CTD-O(2) packages offers the promise of important new insights into circulation and ecosystem function. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Codispoti, LA, Flagg C, Kelly V, Swift JH.  2005.  Hydrographic conditions during the 2002 SBI process experiments. Deep-Sea Research Part Ii-Topical Studies in Oceanography. 52:3199-3226.   10.1016/j.dsr2.2005.10.007   AbstractWebsite

A review of the hydrographic data from the 2002 Western Arctic Shelf-Basin Interactions (SBI) Process Cruises permits the following conclusions. (1) Temperature-salinity relationships were similar to canonical descriptions, but at five stations in the outer shelf/slope region, warm/high-salinity Atlantic Layer Water appeared to have risen, displaced the lower halocline, and mixed with shelf/upper halocline water. (2) Primary production in the SBI study region was strongly influenced by the advection of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) entering via Bering Strait. This import of DIN (ammonium + nitrate + nitrite) is modified by local processes, but without the Bering Strait inflow, biological productivity in the SBI region would be much lower. (3) In comparison to the inflowing Atlantic waters, DIN+ urea/phosphate and DIN + urea/silicate ratios in the Pacific waters that dominated the upper similar to 150 m of the water column were low. They were also low relative to Redfield uptake ratios for phytoplankton. (4) Microbial processes continue to destroy DIN in significant quantities as the Pacific waters transit the SBI region. (5) Nitrate and ammonium were the principal contributors to DIN. Nitrite concentrations were always < 0.4 mu M. With a few exceptions urea concentrations were < 0.5 mu M. (6) Moderate concentrations of DIN occurred in surface layers over the shelf in spring, but surface concentrations in the adjacent basin were low, suggesting that basin productivity is low. (7) In summer, DIN depletion in the surface layers was widespread, but a nutricline below similar to 15m contained chlorophyll and dissolved oxygen maxima. production in this layer. (8) A comparison of nutrient and dissolved oxygen concentrations in Suggesting net primary abyssal waters of the Canada Basin with conditions in Fram Strait suggests that the deep metabolism in the SBI region is exceedingly low compared to typical deep-ocean values. (9) The low abyssal metabolism and phosphate-silicate relationships suggest that the maxima in biogenic solutes (ammonium, silicate, etc.) that appear to originate on the shelf and penetrate the interior at halocline depths are not accompanied by comparable concentrations of labile organic matter. Thus. the moderate to high primary production over the shelf and slope supported by the import of DIN from Bering Strait is largelv regenerated over the shelf. (10) Our easternmost section (east of Pt. Barrow) displayed nutrient maxima at depths of similar to 100m as did our three sections to the west, but in this section these signals were not connected to the shelf, and were most likely advected by an eastward shelf-break jet. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Anderson, LG, Falck E, Jones EP, Jutterstrom S, Swift JH.  2004.  Enhanced uptake of atmospheric CO2 during freezing of seawater: A field study in Storfjorden, Svalbard. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans. 109   10.1029/2003jc002120   AbstractWebsite

The waters of Storfjorden, a fjord in southern Svalbard, were investigated in late April 2002. The temperature was at the freezing point throughout the water column; the salinity in the top 30 m was just above 34.8, then increased nearly linearly to about 35.8 at the bottom. Nutrient and oxygen concentrations showed a minimal trend all through the water column, indicating minimal decay of organic matter. Normalized dissolved inorganic carbon, fCO(2), and CFCs increase with depth below the surface mixed layer, while pH decreases. In waters below 50 m, there was an increase in dissolved inorganic carbon, corrected for decay of organic matter using the phosphate profile, corresponding to about 9 g C m(-2) relative to the surface water concentration. We suggest this excess is a result of enhanced air-sea exchange of CO(2) caused by sea ice formation. This enhancement is suggested to be a result of an efficient exchange through the surface film during the ice crystal formation and the rapid transport of the high salinity brine out of the surface layer.

McLaughlin, FA, Carmack EC, Macdonald RW, Melling H, Swift JH, Wheeler PA, Sherr BF, Sherr EB.  2004.  The joint roles of Pacific and Atlantic-origin waters in the Canada Basin, 1997-1998. Deep-Sea Research Part I-Oceanographic Research Papers. 51:107-128.   10.1016/j.dsr.2003.09.010   AbstractWebsite

Physical and geochemical data collected weekly during the year-long 2800 km drift of the CCGS des Groseilliers show that Canada Basin waters, and in particular the composition of the halocline, can no longer be viewed as laterally homogeneous and in steady state. The halocline was thinner over the Mendeleyev Abyssal Plain and northern Chukchi Plateau. Here, Pacific-origin upper and middle halocline waters occupied the upper 80m of the water column and underlying Atlantic-origin lower halocline waters were fresher, colder and much more ventilated than observed in the past. These new observations of a sub-surface oxygen maximum suggest that outflow from the East Siberian Sea now supplies the Canada Basin lower halocline. East of the Northwind Ridge the halocline was thicker and appeared relatively unchanged. Here Pacific-origin upper and middle halocline waters occupied the top 225 m and Atlantic-origin lower halocline waters were identified by an oxygen minimum. The intensity of the Pacific-origin signal, characterized by a nutrient maximum, was strongest over the Chukchi Gap-the passage between the Chukchi Shelf and Plateau-and the Northwind Abyssal Plain and identified two winter-water spreading pathways. Atlantic-origin waters as much as 0.5degreesC warmer than the historical record were observed over the Chukchi Gap and also over the northern flank of the Chukchi Plateau. These observations signaled that warm-anomaly Fram Strait Branch (FSB) waters, first observed upstream in the Nansen Basin in 1990, had arrived downstream in the Canada Basin eight years later and also indicate two routes whereby FSB waters enter the southern Canada Basin. Although samples were collected throughout one annual cycle, seasonal effects were small and confined to the upper 50 m of the water column. These data show Canada Basin waters are in transition, responding to the effects of upstream change in atmospheric and oceanic circulation. Crown Copyright (C) 2003 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Anderson, LG, Jones EP, Swift JH.  2003.  Export production in the central Arctic Ocean evaluated from phosphate deficits. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans. 108   10.1029/2001jc001057   AbstractWebsite

[1] Primary productivity in the central Arctic Ocean has recently been reported as being much higher than earlier thought. If a significant fraction of this primary production were exported from the immediate surface region, present estimates of the carbon budget for the Arctic Ocean would have to be reassessed. Using the deficit of phosphate in the central Arctic Ocean, we show that the export production is very low, on an average less than 0.5 gC m(-2) yr(-1). This is at least an order of magnitude lower than the total production as measured or estimated from oxygen data, thus indicating extensive recycling of nutrients in the upper waters of the central Arctic Ocean and very little export production.