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Marcuson, R, Gee J, Wei E, Driscoll N.  2019.  A 2000 year geomagnetic field record from the Gulf of Papua. Marine Geology. 408:48-66.   10.1016/j.margeo.2018.11.014   AbstractWebsite

A high resolution Holocene record of geomagnetic field direction and intensity in the Gulf of Papua was constructed using paleomagnetic data from eight piston cores collected in the region. The chronology of the cores was based largely on radiocarbon dates from benthic foraminifera. Correlation of seismic reflectors imaged in subbottom data between nearby cores was consistent with the chronostratigraphic framework based on radiocarbon dates and provided additional confidence of the age model. In other regions, where cores sampled different depositional settings associated with the three-dimensional prograding lobes, reflectors could not be confidently correlated between cores. Furthermore, radiocarbon ages from the bottoms of trigger cores and tops of co-located piston cores revealed varying amounts of overpenetration of the piston core below the seafloor. The relative paleointensity, and a general eastward trend in the declination and steepening of the inclination in our new record are generally compatible with the closest ( > 4300 km) existing records. Our record does not agree well with global field models CALS3k and pfm9k, likely reflecting the lack of existing data contributing to field models in the region.

Sempere, JC, Gee J, Naar DF, Hey RN.  1989.  3-Dimensional Inversion of the Magnetic-Field Over the Easter-Nazca Propagating Rift Near 25-Degrees-S, 112-Degrees-25 W. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth and Planets. 94:17409-17420.   10.1029/JB094iB12p17409   AbstractWebsite

The Easter microplate boundary configuration is being reorganized by rift propagation. A Sea Beam survey of the Easter-Nazca spreading center, which forms the eastern boundary of the microplate, has revealed the presence of a young propagating rift growing northward (Naar and Hey, 1986). The tip of the propagating rift is associated with a high-amplitude positive magnetic anomaly. We have performed a three-dimensional inversion of the magnetic field over the propagating rift tip area. The magnetization solution suggests that the western and eastern pseudofaults strike 014° and 338°, respectively, and converge near the rift tip. These orientations yield a propagation to spreading rate ratio of 1.5, slightly higher than the estimate of Naar and Hey (1986). Using the revised estimate of the full spreading rate along the Easter-Nazca spreading center near 25°S (80 mm/yr) (D. F. Naar and R. N. Hey, unpublished manuscript, 1989), we obtain a propagation rate of 120 mm/yr. Within 27–30 km of the rift tip, the propagating rift curves by about 15° to the east toward the failing rift, probably as a result of the interaction between the two offset spreading centers. As at the Galapagos propagating rift, rift propagation appears to be a very orderly process along the Easter-Nazca spreading center. The magnetization distribution that we obtain exhibits a high at the propagating rift tip. At other large ridge axis discontinuities, similar magnetization highs have been interpreted as being the result of the eruption of highly differentiated basalts enriched in iron. The origin of the high magnetization zone in the case of the Easter-Nazca propagating rift near 25°S may be more complex. Preliminary rock magnetic measurements of basalts recovered in the vicinity of the propagating rift confirm the presence of highly magnetized basalts but suggest that the relationship between high magnetization intensities and high Fe content is not straightforward.

Gee, JS, Tauxe L, Constable C.  2008.  AMSSpin: A LabVIEW program for measuring the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility with the Kappabridge KLY-4S. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems. 9   10.1029/2008gc001976   AbstractWebsite

Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) data are widely used as a petrofabric tool because the technique is rapid and nondestructive and because static measurement systems are capable of determining small degrees of anisotropy. The Kappabridge KLY-4S provides high resolution as a result of the large number of measurements acquired while rotating the sample about three orthogonal axes. Here we describe a graphical-based program called AMSSpin for acquiring AMS data with this instrument as well as a modified specimen holder that should further enhance the utility of this instrument. We also outline a method for analysis of the data (that differs in several ways from that of the software supplied with the instrument) and demonstrate that the measurement errors are suitable for using linear perturbation analysis to statistically characterize the results. Differences in the susceptibility tensors determined by our new program and the SUFAR program supplied with the instrument are small, typically less than or comparable to deviations between multiple measurements of the same specimen.

Johnson, CL, Wijbrans JR, Constable CG, Gee J, Staudigel H, Tauxe L, Forjaz VH, Salgueiro M.  1998.  Ar-40/Ar-39 ages and paleomagnetism of Sao Miguel lavas, Azores. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 160:637-649.   10.1016/s0012-821x(98)00117-4   AbstractWebsite

We present new Ar-40/Ar-39 ages and paleomagnetic data for Sao Miguel island, Azores. Paleomagnetic samples were obtained for 34 flows and one dike; successful mean paleomagnetic directions were obtained for 28 of these 35 sites. Ar-40/Ar-39 age determinations on 12 flows from the Nordeste complex were attempted successfully: ages obtained are between 0.78 Ma and 0.88 Ma, in contrast to published K-Ar ages of 1 Ma to 4 Ma. Our radiometric ages are consistent with the reverse polarity paleomagnetic field directions, and indicate that the entire exposed part of the Nordeste complex is of a late Matuyama age. The duration of volcanism across Sao Miguel is significantly less than previously believed, which has important implications for regional melt generation processes, and temporal sampling of the geomagnetic field. Observed stable isotope and trace element trends across the island can be explained, at least in part, by communication between different magma source regions at depth. The Ar-40/Ar-39 ages indicate that our normal polarity paleomagnetic data sample at least 0.1 Myr (0-0.1 Ma) and up to 0.78 Myr (0-0.78 Ma) of paleosecular variation and our reverse polarity data sample approximately 0.1 Myr (0.78-0.88 Ma) of paleosecular variation. Our results demonstrate that precise radiometric dating of numerous flows sampled is essential to accurate inferences of long-term geomagnetic field behavior. Negative inclination anomalies are observed for both the normal and reverse polarity time-averaged field. Within the data uncertainties, normal and reverse polarity field directions are antipodal, but the reverse polarity field shows a significant deviation from a geocentric axial dipole direction. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Bowles, J, Gee J, Hildebrand J, Tauxe L.  2002.  Archaeomagnetic intensity results from California and Ecuador: evaluation of regional data. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 203:967-981.   10.1016/s0012-821x(02)00927-5   AbstractWebsite

We present new archaeointensity data for southeastern California (similar to33degreesN, similar to115degreesW, 50-1500 yr BP) and northwestern South America (Ecuador, 2.4degreesS, 80.7degreesW, 4000-5000 yr BP). These results represent the only data from California, as well as the oldest archaeointensity data now available in northwestern South America. In comparing our results to previously published data for the southwestern United States and northwestern South America, we note that significant scatter in the existing data makes comparisons and interpretations difficult. We undertake an analysis of the sources of data scatter (including age uncertainty, experimental errors, cooling rate differences, magnetic anisotropy, and field distortion) and evaluate the effects of scatter and error on the smoothed archaeointensity record. By making corrections where possible and eliminating questionable data, scatter is significantly reduced, especially in South America, but is far from eliminated. However, we believe the long-period fluctuations in intensity can be resolved, and differences between the Southwestern and South American records can be identified. The Southwest data are distinguished from the South American data by much higher virtual axial dipole moment values from similar to 0-600 yr BP and by a broad low between similar to 1000-1500 yr BP. Comparisons to global paleofield models reveal disagreements between the models and the archaeointensity data in these two regions, underscoring the need for additional intensity data to constrain the models in much of the world. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Avery, MS, Gee JS, Constable CG.  2017.  Asymmetry in growth and decay of the geomagnetic dipole revealed in seafloor magnetization. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 467:79-88.   10.1016/j.epsl.2017.03.020   AbstractWebsite

Geomagnetic intensity fluctuations provide important constraints on time-scales associated with dynamical processes in the outer core. PADM2M is a reconstructed time series of the 0-2 Ma axial dipole moment (ADM). After smoothing to reject high frequency variations PADM2M's average growth rate is larger than its decay rate. The observed asymmetry in rates of change is compatible with longer term diffusive decay of the ADM balanced by advective growth on shorter time scales, and provides a potentially useful diagnostic for evaluating numerical geodynamo simulations. We re-analyze the PADM2M record using improved low-pass filtering to identify asymmetry and quantify its uncertainty via bootstrap methods before applying the new methodology to other kinds of records. Asymmetry in distribution of axial dipole moment derivatives is quantified using the geomagnetic skewness coefficient, sg. A positive value indicates the distribution has a longer positive tail and the average growth rate is greater than the average decay rate. The original asymmetry noted by Ziegler and Constable (2011) is significant and does not depend on the specifics of the analysis. A long-term record of geomagnetic intensity should also be preserved in the thermoremanent magnetization of oceanic crust recovered by inversion of stacked profiles of marine magnetic anomalies. These provide an independent means of verifying the asymmetry seen in PADM2M. We examine three near bottom surveys: a 0 to 780 ka record from the East Pacific Rise at 19 degrees S, a 0 to 5.2 Ma record from the Pacific Antarctic Ridge at 51 degrees S, and a chron C4Ar-C5r (9.3-11.2 Ma) record from the NE Pacific. All three records show an asymmetry similar in sense to PADM2M with geomagnetic skewness coefficients, s(g) > 0. Results from PADM2M and C4Ar-C5r are most robust, reflecting the higher quality of these geomagnetic records. Our results confirm that marine magnetic anomalies can carry a record of the asymmetric geomagnetic field behavior first found for 0-2 Ma in PADM2M, and show that it was also present during the earlier time interval from 9.3-11.2 Ma. (C) 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

Gee, J, Kent DV.  1999.  Calibration of magnetic granulometric trends in oceanic basalts. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 170:377-390.   10.1016/s0012-821x(99)00125-9   AbstractWebsite

The validity of magnetic granulometric estimates relies heavily on the ability to distinguish ultrafine particles from coarser grains. For example, populations with dominantly superparamagnetic (SP) or multidomain (MD) grains both are characterized by low remanence and coercivity, and distinguishing these endmembers may provide valuable clues to the origin of magnetization in the intervening stable single domain (SD) size range. The natural grain size variations associated with variable cooling rates in submarine lavas provide a rare opportunity for examining progressive changes in average magnetic grain size, from SP-SD mixtures in submarine basaltic glass to SD-MD mixtures in flow interiors. Based on microanalysis and rock magnetic measurements on pillow basalt samples dredged from the flanks of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (ages <1 Ma to 70 Ma), a model of preferential dissolution with time of the finest-grained titanomagnetites has recently been suggested as the major process contributing to long-term temporal changes in remanent intensity of mid-ocean ridge basalts. We evaluated the local and long-term temporal trends in effective magnetic grain size predicted by this model using hysteresis data from a large number of submarine basalt samples which span a range of apes from similar to 0 to similar to 122 Ma. Specimens were systematically taken along transects perpendicular to the chilled margin of each sample. The large number of data (similar to 750 loops) and the inferred progressive change in grain size approaching the chilled margin allow recognition of mixing trends between MD and SD grains and between SD and SP grains on a Day-plot. These trends in hysteresis parameters are crucial to resolving the inherent, but frequently overlooked, ambiguity in inferring grain size from hysteresis parameters. We illustrate that two additional rock magnetic tests (warming of a low-temperature isothermal remanence and hysteresis loop shapes) often used to address these ambiguities are inconclusive, requiring some independent knowledge of whether SP or MD grains are likely to be present. Even with a considerably larger data set the substantial intrasample variability in oceanic basalts precludes recognition of any systematic trend in magnetic grain size with age. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Parker, RL, Gee JS.  2002.  Calibration of the pass-through magnetometer - II. Application. Geophysical Journal International. 150:140-152.   10.1046/j.1365-246X.2002.01692.x   AbstractWebsite

We describe the experimental procedure we use to calibrate a cryogenic pass-through magnetometer. The procedure is designed to characterize the magnetometer sensitivity as a function of position within the sensing region. Then we extend a theory developed in an earlier paper to cover inexact observations and apply it to the data set. The theory allows the calculation of a smooth, harmonic, internally consistent interpolating function for each of the nine components of the response tensor of the magnetometer. With these functions we can calculate the response to a dipole source in any orientation and position, and predict the magnetometer signal from any kind of specimen. The magnetometer in the paleomagnetic laboratory onboard the research vessel Joides Resolution is the subject of one such experiment and we present the results. The variation with position of sensitivity is displayed in a series of plane slices through the magnetometer. We discover from the calibration model that the X and Z coils are misaligned so that the magnetic centre of the coils is displaced from the geometric centre by approximately 0.7 cm. We synthesize the signal expected from the magnetometer when a variety of simple cores are measured. We find that, unless appropriate corrections are made, changes in magnetization direction can appear as variations in magnetic intensity, and conversely, fluctuations in the magnetization strength can produce apparent swings in declination and inclination. The magnitude of these effects is not small and is certainly worth taking into account in the interpretation of records from this kind of instrument. In a pilot study on data from a core measured with the shipboard magnetometer, we observe some large distortions, particularly in declination, that are attributable to uncorrected instrumental effects.

Johnson, PH, Kent DV, Tivey MA, Gee JS, Largon RL, Embley RW.  1997.  Conference on the magnetization of the oceanic crust steers future research. Eos Trans. AGU. 78:199-202.: AGU   10.1029/97eo00133   AbstractWebsite

Because marine magnetic anomalies arise from the combination of seafloor spreading and geomagnetic polarity reversals, they delineate a history of global plate motions and geomagnetic field behavior. Thirty years ago, interpretation of sea surface magnetometer profiles led to the plate tectonics revolution. Recent developments in high resolution magnetic studies are similarly changing our view of the structure and evolution of oceanic crust and beginning to answer basic questions concerning geomagnetic field behavior.In response to these developments, the Conference on the Magnetization of Oceanic Crust was held September 21–24,1996, on Orcas Island in Washington State. Forty-seven scientists representing 20 institutions in seven countries attended the conference, which was funded by the National Science Foundation, the Ridge Interdisciplinary Global Experiment (RIDGE), and the United States Science Advisory Committee (USSAC).

Klootwijk, CT, Gee J, Smith GM, Pierce JW.  1991.  Constraints on the India-Asia convergence; paleomagnetic results from Ninetyeast Ridge. Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results. 121:777-884.   10.2973/   Abstract

This study details the Late Cretaceous and Tertiary northward movement of the Indian plate. Breaks in India's northward movement rate are identified, dated, and correlated with the evolution of the India-Asia convergence. Paleolatitudinal constraints on the origin of Ninetyeast Ridge are discussed, and limited magnetostratigraphic detail is provided.Nearly 1500 sediment and basement samples from Sites 756, 757, and 758 on Ninetyeast Ridge were studied through detailed alternating field and thermal demagnetization. Primary and various secondary magnetization components were identified. Breakpoint intervalsintheprimarypaleolatitudepatternforcommon-Site758wereidentified at2.7,6.7,18.5,about53,63.5-67,and68-74.5 Ma. Only the breakpoint interval at about 53 Ma reliably reflects a reduction in India's northward movement rate. The onset of this probably gradual slowdown was dated at 55 Ma (minimal age) based on the intersection of weighted linear regression lines. At the locationofcommon-Site758,northwardmovementslowedfrom 18-19.5cm/yr(fromatleast65to55Ma)to4.5cm/yr(from55 to at least 20 Ma). Reanalysis of earlier DSDP/ODP paleolatitude data from the Indian plate gives a comparable date (53 Ma) for this reduction in northward velocity.Comparison of our Ninetyeast Ridge data and Himalayan paleomagnetic data indicates that the initial contact of Greater India and Asia mayhave already been established by Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary time. The geological record of the convergence zone and the Indian plate supports the notion that the Deccan Traps extrusion may have resulted from the ensuing deformation of the Indian plate. W e interpret the breakpoint at 55+ Ma to reflect completion of the eastward progressive India-Asia suturing process.Neogene phases in the evolution of the convergence zone were correlated with significant changes in the susceptibility, NRM intensity, and lithostratigraphic profile of Site 758.These changes are interpreted to reflect and postdate tectonic phases in the evolutionofthewiderHimalayanandsouthernTibetanregion.Thechangesweredatedandinterpretedasfollows: 17.5Ma,initial uplift of the Higher Himalaya following initiation of intercontinental underthrusting; 10-10.4 Ma, increased uplift and onset of Middle Siwaliks sedimentation; 8.8 Ma, probable reduction in influx corresponding with the Nagri Formation to Dhok Pathan Formation changeover; 6.5 Ma, major tectonic phase evident throughout the wider Himalayan region and northern Indian Ocean; 5.1-5.4 Ma, onset of oroclinal bending of the Himalayan Arc,of extensional tectonism in southern Tibet, and of Upper Siwalik sedimentation; 2.5-2.7 and 1.9 Ma, major phases of uplift of the Himalayan and Tibetan region culminating in the present-day high relief.The basal ash sequence and upper flow sequence of Site 758 and the basal ash sequence of Site 757 indicate paleolatitudes at about 50°S. These support a Kerguelen hot spot origin for Ninetyeast Ridge. Consistently aberrant inclinations in the basalt sequence ofSite757mayberelatedtoasouthwardridgejumpataboutthetime(58Ma)thatthesebasaltswereerupted.Thebasalt sequence of Site 756 indicates a lower paleolatitude (about 43°S), as do parts of the basalt sequence of Site 758 which also have reversed polarity overprints. The low paleolatitudes for Site 756 may be explained by late-stage volcanism north of the Kerguelen hot spot or the influence of the Amsterdam-St. Paul hot spot.

Gee, J, Staudigel H, Tauxe L.  1989.  Contribution of Induced Magnetization to Magnetization of Seamounts. Nature. 342:170-173.   10.1038/342170a0   AbstractWebsite

A fundamental assumption in modelling seamount magnetic anomalies is that the contribution of induced magnetization is negligible. The general consistency of seamount and non-seamount palaeopoles, scarcity of poles skewed toward the present field direction and the high ratio of remanent to induced magnetization (Koenigsberger ratio) of many oceanic basalts have been cited as evidence supporting this assumption1,2. Recent discussions concerning the dominance of normally magnetized seamounts have focused attention on the possible role of viscous and induced magnetization in seamount anomalies3–6. Here we determine natural remanent magnetization, initial volume susceptibility and the Koenigsberger ratio for more than 2,000 samples from a subaerially exposed seamount section on La Palma, Canary Islands (Table 1). By contrast to results from the oceanic crust and ophiolites, these data indicate that a variety of rock types are potential magnetic sources. The significant induced component of intrusives underscores the importance of the lithological distribution in determining the character of seamount magnetic anomalies. The La Palma data, together with a plausible lithological distribution, indicate that induced magnetization may account for one-sixth of seamount magnetization.

Schoolmeesters, N, Cheadle MJ, John BE, Reiners PW, Gee J, Grimes CB.  2012.  The cooling history and the depth of detachment faulting at the Atlantis Massif oceanic core complex. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems. 13   10.1029/2012gc004314   AbstractWebsite

Oceanic core complexes (OCCs) are domal exposures of oceanic crust and mantle interpreted to be denuded to the seafloor by large slip oceanic detachment faults. We combine previously reported U-Pb zircon crystallization ages with (U-Th)/He zircon thermochronometry and multicomponent magnetic remanence data to determine the cooling history of the footwall to the Atlantis Massif OCC (30 degrees N, MAR) and help establish cooling rates, as well as depths of detachment faulting and gabbro emplacement. We present nine new (U-Th)/He zircon ages for samples from IODP Hole U1309D ranging from 40 to 1415 m below seafloor. These data paired with U-Pb zircon ages and magnetic remanence data constrain cooling rates of gabbroic rocks from the upper 800 m of the central dome at Atlantis Massif as 2895 (+1276/-1162) degrees C Myr(-1) (from similar to 780 degrees C to similar to 250 degrees C); the lower 600 m of the borehole cooled more slowly at mean rates of similar to 500 (+125/-102) degrees C Myr(-1) (from similar to 780 degrees C to present-day temperatures). Rocks from the uppermost part of the hole also reveal a brief period of slow cooling at rates of similar to 300 degrees C Myr(-1), possibly due to hydrothermal circulation to similar to 4 km depth through the detachment fault zone. Assuming a fault slip rate of 20 mm/yr (from U-Pb zircon ages of surface samples) and a rolling hinge model for the sub-surface fault geometry, we predict that the 780 degrees C isotherm lies at similar to 7 km below the axial valley floor, likely corresponding both to the depth at which the semi-brittle detachment fault roots and the probable upper limit of significant gabbro emplacement.

Bowles, J, Gee JS, Kent DV, Bergmanis E, Sinton J.  2005.  Cooling rate effects on paleointensity estimates in submarine basaltic glass and implications for dating young flows. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems. 6   10.1029/2004gc000900   AbstractWebsite

Cooling rate effects on the intensity of thermoremanent magnetization (TRM) have been well documented in ceramics. In that case, laboratory cooling is generally more rapid than the initial cooling, leading to an overestimate of the paleofield by 5-10% in Thellier-type paleointensity experiments. The reverse scenario, however, has never been tested. We examine the effects of cooling rate on paleointensity estimates from rapidly quenched submarine basaltic glass (SBG) samples from 13 sites at 17 degrees 30'-18 degrees 30'S on the East Pacific Rise. Absolute cooling rates determined by relaxation geospeedometry at five of these sites range from similar to 10 to similar to 330 degrees C min(-1) at the glass transition (similar to 650 degrees C). Over the dominant range of remanence blocking temperatures (similar to 200-400 degrees C), the natural cooling rates are approximately equal to or slightly slower than the laboratory cooling rates during the Thellier experiment. These results suggest that while the cooling rate effect might introduce some within-site scatter, it should not result in a systematic bias in paleointensity from SBG. Paleointensity estimates from the 15 sites range from similar to 29 to 59 mu T, with an average standard error of similar to 1 mu T. Comparison with models of geomagnetic field intensity variations at the site indicate the youngest group of samples is very recent (indistinguishable from present-day) and the oldest is at least 500, and probably several thousand, years old. These age estimates are consistent with available radiometric ages and geologic observations.

Pospichal, JJ, Dehn J, Driscoll N, van Eijden AJM, Farrell J, Fourtanier E, Gamson PD, Gee J, Janecek T, Jenkins GD, Klootwijk CT, Nomura R, Owen RM, Rea DK, Resiwati P, Smit J, Smith GM.  1991.  Cretaceous-Paleogene biomagnetostratigraphy of sites 752-755, Broken Ridge; a synthesis. Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results. 121:721-742.   10.2973/   Abstract

Broken Ridge, in the eastern Indian Ocean, is a shallow-water volcanic platform which formed during the Early to middle Cretaceous at which time it comprised the northern portion of the Kerguelen-Heard Plateau. Rifting during the middle Eocene and subsequent seafloor spreading has moved Broken Ridge about 20°N to its present location. The sedimentary section of Broken Ridge includes Turonian-lower Eocene limestone and chalk with volcanic ash, an interval of detrital sands and gravels associated with middle Eocene rifting and uplift, and a middle-late Oligocene unconformity overlain by a thin section of Neogene-Holocene pelagic calcareous ooze. This paper summarizes the available post-cruise biostratigraphic and magnetostratigraphic data for the Cretaceous- Paleogene section on Broken Ridge. The synthesis of this information permits a more precise interpretation of the timing of events in the history of Broken Ridge, in particular the timing and duration of the middle Eocene rifting event. Paleontologic data support rapid flexural uplift of Broken Ridge in response to mechanical rather than thermal forces. Other highlights of the section include a complete Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary and an opportunity for first-order correlation of Paleogene diatom stratigraphy with that of the calcareous groups.

Hurst, SD, Gee JS, Lawrence RM.  1997.  Data report; Reorientation of structural features at sites 920 to 924 using remanent magnetization and magnetic characteristics. Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results. 153:547-559.   10.2973/   Abstract

Drilling at Ocean Drilling Program Sites 920 to 924 recovered core with a diverse set of pervasive structural elements. Site 920 recovered predominantly peridotitic rocks that display an early crystal-plastic fabric overprinted by at least five generations of veins. Sites 921 to 924 recovered gabbros that contain magmatic and metamorphic foliations and lineations developed to varying intensities throughout. Brittle features in the gabbro core include Cataclastic zones, faults, and several generations of veins. The characteristic magnetization direction was used to estimate the in situ orientation of structural features within the core. Although significant uncertainty is associated with the unknown effects of anisotropy and tectonic rotations on the rema- nent declinations, the corrected attitudes of the dominant foliations at Site 920 dip gently east-northeast, parallel to other obser- vations of seafloor structures in the area. Other vein generations and structural features in the rocks do not have a consistent orientation with respect to each other or a consistent variation with core depth. Sites 921-924 were drilled into a section of mostly gabbroic rocks that typically have complicated magnetic properties, with several remanence components identifiable during demagnetization. Reorientation of the gabbro cores is less certain because of the complexity of the remanent magnetiza- tion components, however, many structures in the gabbro from Hole 923A also seem to have gentle dips to the northeast after such a reorientation.

Gee, JS, Webb SC, Ridgway J, Staudigel H, Zumberge MA.  2001.  A deep tow magnetic survey of Middle Valley, Juan de Fuca Ridge. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems. 2   10.1029/2001GC000170   AbstractWebsite

We report here results from a deep tow magnetic survey over Middle Valley, Juan de Fuca Ridge. A series of track lines are combined to generate a high-resolution map of the magnetic field anomaly within a 10 x 12 km region surrounding the Bent Hill massive sulfide (BHMS) deposit. A uniformly magnetized body (5 A/m) with a cross section approximating the body inferred from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) drilling can account for the observed near-bottom magnetic anomaly amplitude. Assuming this magnetization is entirely induced, the average susceptibility (0.11 SI) corresponds to similar to3.5% magnetite + pyrrhotite by volume, consistent with the abundance of these phases observed in drill core samples. However, this uniform magnetization model significantly underestimates the magnetic anomaly measured a few meters above the seafloor by submersible, indicating that the upper portion of the sulfide mound must have a significantly higher magnetization (similar to 10% magnetite + pyrrhotite) than at deeper levels. On a larger scale, the near-bottom magnetic anomaly data show that basement magnetizations are not uniformly near zero, as had been inferred from analysis of the sea surface anomaly pattern. We interpret this heterogeneity as reflecting primarily differences in the degree of hydrothermal alteration. Our results highlight the potential of magnetic anomaly data for characterizing hydrothermal deposits where extensive drill core sampling is not available.

Mitra, R, Tauxe L, Gee JS.  2011.  Detecting uniaxial single domain grains with a modified IRM technique. Geophysical Journal International. 187:1250-1258.   10.1111/j.1365-246X.2011.05224.x   AbstractWebsite

Mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) specimens have often been found to have high ratios of saturation remanence to saturation magnetization (M(rs)/M(s)). This has been attributed either to dominant cubic anisotropy or to insufficient saturating field leading to overestimation of M(rs)/M(s) of a dominantly uniaxial single domain (USD) assemblage. To resolve this debate, we develop an independent technique to detect USD assemblages. The experimental protocol involves subjecting the specimen to bidirectional impulse fields at each step. The experiment is similar to the conventional isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) acquisition experiment but the field is applied twice, in antiparallel directions. We define a new parameter, IRAT, as the ratio of the remanences at each field step and show it to have characteristic behaviour for the two assemblages; IRAT similar to 1 at all field steps for USD and <1 with a strong field dependence for multi-axial single domain (MSD) grains. We verified the theoretical predictions experimentally with representative USD and MSD specimens. Experiments with MORBs gave low IRATs for specimens having high M(rs)/M(s). This argues for a dominant MSD assemblage in the MORBs, possibly cubic in nature. Although undersaturation of the samples can indeed be a contributing factor to the exceptionally high M(rs)/M(s), this study shows that the nature of the assemblage cannot be dominantly USD.

Varga, RJ, Gee JS, Staudigel H, Tauxe L.  1998.  Dike surface lineations as magma flow indicators within the sheeted dike complex of the Troodos Ophiolite, Cyprus. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth. 103:5241-5256.   10.1029/97jb02717   AbstractWebsite

Mesoscopic flow lineations and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) have been measured for dikes within the Cretaceous-age Troodos ophiolite with the goal of comparing the direction of initial magma now through dike conduits immediately following crack propagation with that of flow of subsequent magma emplaced during later stages of dike growth. Dike margin indicators of flow include cusp axes and elongate vesicles found high in the ophiolite peudostratigraphy and ridge-and-groove structures termed hot slickenlines found throughout the complex. A unique now direction is determined where elongate vesicles near dike margins display imbrication with respect to the margin. Significant changes in vesicle elongation directions across dikes likely indicate either changes in magma flow direction after dike propagation or backflow of magma during the waning stages of intrusion. Surface lineations generally lie subparallel to the direction of flow inferred from AMS determinations on cores within 5 cm of dike margins. Surface lineations also lie subparallel to the long axis (epsilon(1)) of the orientation ellipsoid defined by long axes of groundmass plagioclase phenocrysts measured in sections from AMS cores. Correlation of surface lineations with interior indicators of flow (AMS, plagioclase trachytic texture) indicate that the surface features are good proxies for grain-scale magma flow directions during dike propagation in Troodos dikes. Orientations of surface flow features in the dikes of the Troodos ophiolite indicate an approximately equal mix of subhorizontal to near-vertical magma flow, contradicting the paradigm of primarily vertical flow of magma beneath continuous axial magma chambers at oceanic spreading centers. Our data are consistent with a model of magma emplacement both vertically and horizontally away from isolated magma chambers beneath axial volcanoes spaced along a ridge crest.

Varga, RJ, Horst AJ, Gee JS, Karson JA.  2008.  Direct evidence from anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility for lateral melt migration at superfast spreading centers. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems. 9   10.1029/2008gc002075   AbstractWebsite

Rare, fault-bounded escarpments expose natural cross sections of ocean crust in several areas and provide an unparalleled opportunity to study the end products of tectonic and magmatic processes that operated at depth beneath oceanic spreading centers. We mapped the geologic structure of ocean crust produced at the East Pacific Rise ( EPR) and now exposed along steep cliffs of the Pito Deep Rift near the northern edge of the Easter microplate. The upper oceanic crust in this area is typified by basaltic lavas underlain by a sheeted dike complex comprising northeast striking, moderately to steeply southeast dipping dikes. Paleomagnetic remanence of oriented blocks of dikes collected with both Alvin and Jason II indicate clockwise rotation of similar to 61 degrees related to rotation of the microplate indicating structural coupling between the microplate and crust of the Nazca Plate to the north. The consistent southeast dip of dikes formed as the result of tilting at the EPR shortly after their injection. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility of dikes provides well-defined magmatic flow directions that are dominantly dike-parallel and shallowly plunging. Corrected to their original EPR orientation, magma flow is interpreted as near-horizontal and parallel to the ridge axis. These data provide the first direct evidence from sheeted dikes in ocean crust for along-axis magma transport. These results also suggest that lateral transport in dikes is important even at fast spreading ridges where a laterally continuous subaxial magma chamber is present.

Horst, AJ, Varga RJ, Gee JS, Karson JA.  2014.  Diverse magma flow directions during construction of sheeted dike complexes at fast- to superfast-spreading centers. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 408:119-131.   10.1016/j.epsl.2014.09.022   AbstractWebsite

Dike intrusion is a fundamental process during upper oceanic crustal accretion at fast- to superfast-spreading ridges. Based on the distribution of magma along fast-spreading centers inferred from marine geophysical data, models predict systematic steep flow at magmatically robust segment centers and shallow magma flow toward distal segment ends. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) fabrics from 48 fully-oriented block samples of dikes from upper oceanic crust exposed at Hess Deep Rift and Pito Deep Rift reveal a wide range of magma flow directions that are not consistent with such simple magma supply models. The AMS is interpreted to arise from distribution anisotropy of titanomagnetite crystals based on weak shape-preferred orientation of opaque oxide and plagioclase crystals generally parallel to AMS maximum eigenvectors. Most dike samples show normal AMS fabrics with maximum eigenvector directions ranging from subvertical to subhorizontal. The distributions of inferred magma flow lineations from maximum eigenvectors show no preferred flow pattern, even after structural correction. We use a Kolmogorov Smirnov test (KS-test) to show that the distribution of bootstrapped flow lineation rakes from Pito Deep are not statistically distinct from Hess Deep, and neither are distinguishable from Oman and Troodos Ophiolite AMS data. Magma flow directions in sheeted dikes from these two seafloor escarpments also do not correlate with available geochemistry in any systematic way as previously predicted. These results indicate distinct compositional sources feed melt that is injected into dikes at fast- to superfast-spreading ridges with no preference for subhorizontal or subvertical magma flow. Collectively, results imply ephemeral melt lenses at different along-axis locations within the continuous axial magma chamber and either direct injection or intermingling of melt from other deeper ridge-centered or off-axis sources. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Blackman, DK, Ildefonse B, John BE, Ohara Y, Miller DJ, Abe N, Abratis M, Andal ES, Andreani M, Awaji S, Beard JS, Brunelli D, Charney AB, Christie DM, Collins J, Delacour AG, Delius H, Drouin M, Einaudi F, Escartin J, Frost BR, Fruh-Green G, Fryer PB, Gee JS, Godard M, Grimes CB, Halfpenny A, Hansen HE, Harris AC, Tamura A, Hayman NW, Hellebrand E, Hirose T, Hirth JG, Ishimaru S, Johnson KTM, Karner GD, Linek M, MacLeod CJ, Maeda J, Mason OU, McCaig AM, Michibayashi K, Morris A, Nakagawa T, Nozaka T, Rosner M, Searle RC, Suhr G, Tominaga M, von der Handt A, Yamasaki T, Zhao X.  2011.  Drilling constraints on lithospheric accretion and evolution at Atlantis Massif, Mid-Atlantic Ridge 30 degrees N. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth. 116   10.1029/2010jb007931   AbstractWebsite

Expeditions 304 and 305 of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program cored and logged a 1.4 km section of the domal core of Atlantis Massif. Postdrilling research results summarized here constrain the structure and lithology of the Central Dome of this oceanic core complex. The dominantly gabbroic sequence recovered contrasts with predrilling predictions; application of the ground truth in subsequent geophysical processing has produced self-consistent models for the Central Dome. The presence of many thin interfingered petrologic units indicates that the intrusions forming the domal core were emplaced over a minimum of 100-220 kyr, and not as a single magma pulse. Isotopic and mineralogical alteration is intense in the upper 100 m but decreases in intensity with depth. Below 800 m, alteration is restricted to narrow zones surrounding faults, veins, igneous contacts, and to an interval of locally intense serpentinization in olivine-rich troctolite. Hydration of the lithosphere occurred over the complete range of temperature conditions from granulite to zeolite facies, but was predominantly in the amphibolite and greenschist range. Deformation of the sequence was remarkably localized, despite paleomagnetic indications that the dome has undergone at least 45 degrees rotation, presumably during unroofing via detachment faulting. Both the deformation pattern and the lithology contrast with what is known from seafloor studies on the adjacent Southern Ridge of the massif. There, the detachment capping the domal core deformed a 100 m thick zone and serpentinized peridotite comprises similar to 70% of recovered samples. We develop a working model of the evolution of Atlantis Massif over the past 2 Myr, outlining several stages that could explain the observed similarities and differences between the Central Dome and the Southern Ridge.

Varga, RJ, Gee JS, Bettison-Varga L, Anderson RS, Johnson CL.  1999.  Early establishment of seafloor hydrothermal systems during structural extension: paleomagnetic evidence from the Troodos ophiolite, Cyprus. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 171:221-235.   10.1016/s0012-821x(99)00147-8   AbstractWebsite

Paleomagnetic data from the Troodos ophiolite are used to help constrain models for the relationship between extensional normal faulting and hydrothermal alteration related to production of large-tonnage sulfide deposits at oceanic ridges. We have sampled dikes from the Troodos sheeted complex that have been subjected to variable hydrothermal alteration, from greenschist alteration typical of the low water/rock mass ratio interactions outside of hydrothermal upflow zones as well as from severely recrystallized rocks (epidosites) altered within high water/rock mass ratio hydrothermal upflow zones in the root zones beneath large sulfide ore deposits. These dikes are moderately to highly tilted from their initial near-vertical orientations due to rotations in the hangingwalls of approximately dike-parallel, oceanic normal faults. Comparison of characteristic remanence directions from these dikes with the Late Cretaceous Troodos reference direction, therefore, allows a tilt test to determine whether remanent magnetizations were acquired prior to or subsequent to tilting. Remanence directions for both greenschist and epidosite dikes show similar magnitudes of tilting due to rotational normal faulting and restore to the Late Cretaceous Troodos reference direction upon restoration of dikes to near-vertical positions about a NNW-trending, horizontal axis. These data, along with field observations of focused alteration along normal faults, suggest that epidosite alteration occurred during the early stages of extensional tilting and prior to significant rotation. This sequence of events is similar to that observed for creation of large-tonnage sulfide bodies at intermediate to slow spreading centers which form soon after cessation of magmatism and during the early stages of structural extension. We suggest that the dike-parallel normal faults were initiated as extensional fractures during this early stage of crustal extension, thus providing the necessary permeability for focused fluid flow, and that later slip along these structures during rotational-planar normal faulting caused reduction in permeability due to gouge formation. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Klootwijk, CT, Gee JS, Peirce JW, Smith GM, McFadden PL.  1992.  An Early India-Asia Contact - Paleomagnetic Constraints from Ninetyeast Ridge, ODP Leg 121. Geology. 20:395-398.   10.1130/0091-7613(1992)020<0395:aeiacp>;2   AbstractWebsite

New paleomagnetic results from sedimentary rock and basement of the Ninetyeast Ridge (Ocean Drilling Program Leg 121, Sites 756-758) detail the northward movement of the Indian plate for the past 80 m.y. Analysis of the combined paleolatitude-age profile indicates a distinct reduction in India's northward movement rate at 55+ Ma, interpreted as completion of suturing of Greater India and Asia. India's northward motion slowed from 18-19.5 cm/yr to 4.5 cm/yr for the location of Site 758. Comparison of this profile with paleomagnetic data from the wider Himalayan region indicates that initial contact between northwestern Greater India and southern Asia was already established by Cretaceous-Tertiary time. This supports a possible causal link between the India-Asia convergence and the Deccan Traps extrusion.

Selkin, PA, Gee JS, Tauxe L, Meurer WP, Newell AJ.  2000.  The effect of remanence anisotropy on paleointensity estimates: a case study from the Archean Stillwater Complex. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 183:403-416.   10.1016/s0012-821x(00)00292-2   AbstractWebsite

Paleomagnetism of Archean rocks potentially provides information about the early development of the Earth and of the geodynamo. Precambrian layered intrusive rocks are good candidates for paleomagnetic studies: such complexes are commonly relatively unaltered and may contain some single-domain magnetite 'armored' by silicate mineral grains. However, layered intrusives often have a strong petrofabric that may result in a strong remanence anisotropy. Magnetic anisotropy can have particularly disastrous consequences for paleointensity experiments if the anisotropy is unrecognized and if its effects remain uncorrected. Here we examine the magnetic anisotropy of an anorthosite sample with a well-developed magmatic foliation. The effect of the sample's remanence fabric on paleointensity determinations is significant: paleointensities estimated by the method of Thellier and Thellier range from 17 to 55 muT for specimens magnetized in a field of 25 muT. We describe a technique based on the remanence anisotropy tensor to correct paleointensity estimates for the effects of magnetic fabric and use it to estimate a paleointensity for the Stillwater Complex (MT, USA) of similar to 32 muT (adjusted for the effects of slow cooling). (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Burgess, K, Cooper RF, Bowles JA, Gee JS, Cherniak DJ.  2010.  Effects of open and closed system oxidation on texture and magnetic response of remelted basaltic glass. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems. 11   10.1029/2010gc003248   AbstractWebsite

As part of an experimental and observational study of the magnetic response of submarine basaltic glass (SBG), we have examined, using ion backscattering spectrometry (RBS), transmission and scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, and surface X-ray diffraction, the textures wrought by the controlled, open and closed system oxidation of glasses prepared by the controlled environment remelting and quenching of natural SBG. Initial compositions with similar to 9 wt % FeO* were melted at 1430 degrees C with the oxygen fugacity buffered at fayalite-magnetite-quartz; melts were cooled at a rate of 200 degrees C min(-1) near the glass transition (T(g) = 680 degrees C). In open system experiments, where chemical exchange is allowed to occur with the surrounding atmosphere, polished pieces of glass were reheated to temperatures both below and above T(g) for times 1-5000 h; undercooled melts were oxidized at 900 degrees C and 1200 degrees C for 18 and 20 h, respectively. RBS demonstrates unequivocally that the dynamics of open system oxidation involves the outward motion of network-modifying cations. Oxidation results in formation of a Fe-, Ca-, and Mg-enriched surface layer that consists in part of Ti-free nanometer-scale ferrites; a divalentcation- depleted layer is observed at depths >1 mu m. Specimens annealed/oxidized above T(g) have magnetizations elevated by 1-2 orders of magnitude relative to the as-quenched material; this does not appear to be related to the surface oxidation. Quenched glass (closed system, i.e., no chemical exchange between sample and atmosphere) exhibits very fine scale chemical heterogeneities that coarsen with time under an electron beam; this metastable amorphous immiscibility is the potential source for the nucleation of ferrites with a wide range of Ti contents, ferrites not anticipated from an equilibrium analysis of the bulk basalt composition.