Publications

Export 95 results:
Sort by: [ Author  (Asc)] Title Type Year
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 
G
Gee, J, Varga R, Gallet Y, Staudigel H.  1993.  Reversed-polarity overprint in dikes from the Troodos ophiolite: Implications for the timing of alteration and extension. Geology. 21:849-852.: Geological Society of America   10.1130/0091-7613(1993)021<0849:rpoidf>2.3.co;2   AbstractWebsite

Paleomagnetic analysis of dikes from the Troodos ophiolite indicates the presence of a well-defined reversed-polarity overprint, an unexpected result given the currently accepted Cenomanian-Turonian age (88-91 Ma) suggesting formation during the Cretaceous Long Normal Period (83-118 Ma). This reversed- polarity component was apparently acquired prior to tectonic tilting of the dikes, implying that extensional tectonism occurred significantly (>5 m.y.) off axis. Alternatively, the paleomagnetic and field observations may be reconciled if parts of the ophiolite are significantly younger.

Gee, JS, Cande SC.  2002.  A surface-towed vector magnetometer. Geophysical Research Letters. 29   10.1029/2002gl015245   AbstractWebsite

[1] We have tested the feasibility of using a commercial motion sensor as a vector magnetometer that can be towed at normal survey speeds behind a research vessel. In contrast to previous studies using a shipboard mounted vector magnetometer, the towed system is essentially unaffected by the magnetization of the towing vessel. Results from a test deployment compare favorably with an earlier vector aeromagnetic survey, indicating that the towed instrument can resolve horizontal and vertical anomalies with amplitudes >30-50 nT. This instrument should be particularly useful in equatorial regions, where the vector anomalies are substantially greater than the corresponding total field anomalies.

Gee, J, Staudigel H, Natland JH.  1991.  Geology and petrology of Jasper Seamount. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth and Planets. 96:4083-4105.   10.1029/90jb02364   AbstractWebsite

Fifteen dredges on the summit and upper flanks of Jasper Seamount (122-degrees 44'W; 30-degrees 27'N) recovered a wide variety of lithologies, including pillow lavas, vesicular lapillistones from shallow submarine explosive volcanism, and a range of xenoliths. On the basis of dredge locations, geochemical characteristics, and Ar-40/Ar-39 age data, three distinct phases of volcanism can be distinguished, a shield-building tholeiitic/transitional phase (Flank Transitional Series, FTS), followed by a flank alkalic series (FAS), and a late-stage Summit Alkalic Series (SAS). All three series consist exclusively of differentiated (Mg# = 54 to 21; Mg# = Mg2+/(Mg2+ + Fe2+)) compositions. The FTS represents a low-pressure differentiation trend from tholeiitic/transitional basalts to quartz-normative residual liquids and probably accounts for more than 90% of the volume of Jasper. Ar-40/Ar-39 age data, the dominant reversed polarity of Jasper, and a plausible duration (< 1 m.y.) for shield construction suggest FTS volcanism began about 11 Ma and ended about 10 Ma. FTS lavas probably erupted from a NW trending, hotspot track-parallel rift system. The intermediate alkalinity FAS lavas, which probably comprise 3-8% of the volume of Jasper, erupted from 8.7 to 7.5 Ma, possibly after a brief volcanic hiatus or period of reduced eruptive activity. Normative projections suggest the FAS lavas are the product of fractionation or equilibration at elevated pressures. The hawaiites and mugearites of the SAS erupted between 4.8 and 4.1 Ma, after a probable 2.7 m.y. period of volcanic quiescence, and probably constitute < 1% of the seamount volume. A suite of xenoliths incorporated in SAS lavas includes (1) tholeiitic basalt fragments from either the ocean crust or seamount interior, (2) a range of differentiated gabbros largely derived from the ocean crust, (3) residual mantle spinel lherzolites, and (4) pyroxenite and peridotite cumulates. The abundance of crustal gabbro and spinel lherzolite xenoliths in evolved lavas of the SAS suggests that these lavas probably fractionated in a magma chamber at the crust-mantle boundary. The occurrence of orthopyroxene-bearing alkalic cumulate xenoliths in these lavas, however, is enigmatic and may reflect complexities such as magma mixing or the inappropriateness of pressure estimates. The SAS vents of Jasper define a NE-SW volcanic trend which is orthogonal to the FTS rift. The pattern of volcanic activity, including periods of volcanic quiescence, and the general increase in alkalinity, as well as the structural reorganization of magmatic feeder systems of Jasper Seamount, is strikingly similar to the patterns observed on Hawaiian volcanoes. Thus our data from Jasper (690 km3) extend the concepts of structural and petrological evolution of hotspot volcanoes based on Hawaii to moderate-sized seamounts.

Gee, JS, Tauxe L, Constable C.  2008.  AMSSpin: A LabVIEW program for measuring the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility with the Kappabridge KLY-4S. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems. 9   10.1029/2008gc001976   AbstractWebsite

Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) data are widely used as a petrofabric tool because the technique is rapid and nondestructive and because static measurement systems are capable of determining small degrees of anisotropy. The Kappabridge KLY-4S provides high resolution as a result of the large number of measurements acquired while rotating the sample about three orthogonal axes. Here we describe a graphical-based program called AMSSpin for acquiring AMS data with this instrument as well as a modified specimen holder that should further enhance the utility of this instrument. We also outline a method for analysis of the data (that differs in several ways from that of the software supplied with the instrument) and demonstrate that the measurement errors are suitable for using linear perturbation analysis to statistically characterize the results. Differences in the susceptibility tensors determined by our new program and the SUFAR program supplied with the instrument are small, typically less than or comparable to deviations between multiple measurements of the same specimen.

Gee, JS, Yu YJ, Bowles J.  2010.  Paleointensity estimates from ignimbrites: An evaluation of the Bishop Tuff. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems. 11   10.1029/2009gc002834   AbstractWebsite

Ash flow tuffs, or ignimbrites, typically contain fine-grained magnetite, spanning the superparamagnetic to single-domain size range that should be suitable for estimating geomagnetic field intensity. However, ignimbrites may have a remanence of thermal and chemical origin as a result of the complex magnetic mineralogy and variations in the thermal and alteration history. We examined three stratigraphic sections through the similar to 0.76 Ma Bishop Tuff, where independent information on postemplacement cooling and alteration is available, as a test of the suitability of ignimbrites for paleointensity studies. Thermomagnetic curves suggest that low-Ti titanomagnetite (T(c) = 560 degrees C-580 degrees C) is the dominant phase, with a minor contribution from a higher Tc phase(s). Significant remanence unblocking above 580 degrees C suggests that maghemite and/or (titano)maghemite is an important contributor to the remanence in most samples. We obtained successful paleofield estimates from remanence unblocked between 440 degrees C and 580 degrees C for 46 of 89 specimens (15 sites at two of three total localities). These specimens represent a range of degrees of welding and have variable alteration histories and yet provide a consistent paleofield estimate of 43.0 mu T (+/- 3.2), equivalent to a VADM of 7.8 x 10(22) Am(2). The most densely welded sections of the tuff have emplacement temperatures inferred to be as high as similar to 660 degrees C, suggesting that the remanence may be primarily thermal in origin, though a contribution from thermochemical remanence cannot be excluded. These results suggest that ignimbrites may constitute a viable material for reliable paleointensity determinations.

Gee, J, Kent DV.  1999.  Calibration of magnetic granulometric trends in oceanic basalts. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 170:377-390.   10.1016/s0012-821x(99)00125-9   AbstractWebsite

The validity of magnetic granulometric estimates relies heavily on the ability to distinguish ultrafine particles from coarser grains. For example, populations with dominantly superparamagnetic (SP) or multidomain (MD) grains both are characterized by low remanence and coercivity, and distinguishing these endmembers may provide valuable clues to the origin of magnetization in the intervening stable single domain (SD) size range. The natural grain size variations associated with variable cooling rates in submarine lavas provide a rare opportunity for examining progressive changes in average magnetic grain size, from SP-SD mixtures in submarine basaltic glass to SD-MD mixtures in flow interiors. Based on microanalysis and rock magnetic measurements on pillow basalt samples dredged from the flanks of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (ages <1 Ma to 70 Ma), a model of preferential dissolution with time of the finest-grained titanomagnetites has recently been suggested as the major process contributing to long-term temporal changes in remanent intensity of mid-ocean ridge basalts. We evaluated the local and long-term temporal trends in effective magnetic grain size predicted by this model using hysteresis data from a large number of submarine basalt samples which span a range of apes from similar to 0 to similar to 122 Ma. Specimens were systematically taken along transects perpendicular to the chilled margin of each sample. The large number of data (similar to 750 loops) and the inferred progressive change in grain size approaching the chilled margin allow recognition of mixing trends between MD and SD grains and between SD and SP grains on a Day-plot. These trends in hysteresis parameters are crucial to resolving the inherent, but frequently overlooked, ambiguity in inferring grain size from hysteresis parameters. We illustrate that two additional rock magnetic tests (warming of a low-temperature isothermal remanence and hysteresis loop shapes) often used to address these ambiguities are inconclusive, requiring some independent knowledge of whether SP or MD grains are likely to be present. Even with a considerably larger data set the substantial intrasample variability in oceanic basalts precludes recognition of any systematic trend in magnetic grain size with age. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Gee, J, Staudigel H, Tauxe L.  1989.  Contribution of Induced Magnetization to Magnetization of Seamounts. Nature. 342:170-173.   10.1038/342170a0   AbstractWebsite

A fundamental assumption in modelling seamount magnetic anomalies is that the contribution of induced magnetization is negligible. The general consistency of seamount and non-seamount palaeopoles, scarcity of poles skewed toward the present field direction and the high ratio of remanent to induced magnetization (Koenigsberger ratio) of many oceanic basalts have been cited as evidence supporting this assumption1,2. Recent discussions concerning the dominance of normally magnetized seamounts have focused attention on the possible role of viscous and induced magnetization in seamount anomalies3–6. Here we determine natural remanent magnetization, initial volume susceptibility and the Koenigsberger ratio for more than 2,000 samples from a subaerially exposed seamount section on La Palma, Canary Islands (Table 1). By contrast to results from the oceanic crust and ophiolites, these data indicate that a variety of rock types are potential magnetic sources. The significant induced component of intrusives underscores the importance of the lithological distribution in determining the character of seamount magnetic anomalies. The La Palma data, together with a plausible lithological distribution, indicate that induced magnetization may account for one-sixth of seamount magnetization.

Gee, J, Kent DV.  1994.  Variations in Layer 2A Thickness and the Origin of the Central Anomaly Magnetic High. Geophysical Research Letters. 21:297-300.   10.1029/93gl03422   AbstractWebsite

The seismically determined off-axis thickening of the extrusive layer is apparently at odds with the magnetic anomaly high typically associated with the ridge crest. The positive magnetization contrast at the ridge crest is most likely caused by rapid alteration of the extrusive source layer which occurs over spatial scales (2-3 km) comparable to that of the proposed Layer 2A thickening. We present magnetic remanence data from basalts dredged on and near the East Pacific Rise axis at 12-degrees-N which are compatible with a rapid magnetization reduction (approximately 20 k.y. to decay to 1/e). Together with near bottom magnetic profiles from the ultra-fast-spreading East Pacific Rise at 19.5-degrees-S, these data suggest that previous estimates of the time constant of alteration inferred from slow-spreading ridges (0.5 m.y.) may be more than an order of magnitude too high.

Gee, JS, Kent DV.  2007.  Source of oceanic magnetic anomalies and the geomagnetic polarity timesale. Treatise on geophysics. 5( Kono M, Schubert G, Eds.).:455-507., Amsterdam ; Boston: Elsevier Abstract
n/a
Gee, JS, Tauxe L, Barge E.  1991.  Lower Jaramillo polarity transition records from the equatorial Atlantic and Indian oceans. Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program Scientific Results. 121:377-394.   10.2973/odp.proc.sr.121.152.1991   Abstract

Two records of the geomagnetic polarity transition at the beginning of the Jaramillo Subchron (0.97 Ma) have been obtainedfrom sediments in the equatorial Atlantic (Leg 108, Site 665; 2.95°N, 340.33°E) and Indian (Leg 121, Site 758; 5.38°N, 90.35°E)oceans. Both cores yielded high-quality magnetostratigraphic results; however, the relatively low sedimentation rates, the weakmagnetizations, and complex demagnetization behavior of some transitional samples suggest that the record of the transitional fieldbehavior may be less reliable. In addition, variations in grain size preclude reliable paleointensity determinations although theremanence in both cores is apparently dominated by magnetite. Despite these possible complications, the two cores yield transitionalpaths that are neither far-sided nor near-sided. Together with published records that meet minimum reliability standards, the twoequatorial records presented here suggest that the lower Jaramillo transitional field morphology was significantly nonaxisymmetric.The mean normal and reversed inclinations from both cores deviate from the inclination expected from a geocentric axial dipole, asnoted in virtually all marine sediment cores. The observed inclinations provide further support for a polarity-dependent nondipolecontribution to the time-averaged field.

Gee, J, Kent DV.  1995.  Magnetic Histeresis in Young Midocean Ridge Basalts - Dominant Cubic Anisotropy. Geophysical Research Letters. 22:551-554.   10.1029/95gl00263   AbstractWebsite

Magnetic hysteresis data from young mid-ocean ridge basalts include samples with saturation remanence to saturation magnetization (Mrs/Ms) ratios greater than 0.5, the theoretical limit for an assemblage of single domain grains with uniaxial anisotropy. Under the usual assumption of dominant uniaxial anisotropy, the narrow single domain grain size distribution implied by these high Mrs/Ms values is difficult to reconcile with petrographic and remanence data that suggest the presence of larger multidomain grains. Dominant cubic anisotropy provides a plausible explanation for the high Mrs/Ms ratios, and if generally valid, requires reinterpretation of granulometric and domain state inferences made from hysteresis data.

Gee, J, Kent DV.  1997.  Magnetization of axial lavas from the southern East Pacific Rise (14 degrees-23 degrees S): Geochemical controls on magnetic properties. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth. 102:24873-24886.   10.1029/97jb02544   AbstractWebsite

Although the spatial association of iron-rich lavas and high-amplitude magnetic anomalies is well documented, a causal link between enhanced iron content and high remanent magnetization has been difficult to establish. Here we report magnetic data from approximately 250 samples, with 8-16% FeO* (total iron as FeO), from the southern East Pacific Rise (EPR) that provide strong support for the presumed geochemical dependence of remanent intensity. The limited age range (0-6 ka) of axial lavas from this ultrafast spreading ridge (similar to 150 mm/yr full rate) effectively minimizes variations resulting from time dependent chan or low-temperature alteration. Systematic sampling relative to the chilled margin illustrates that substantial grain size-related variations in magnetic properties occur on a centimeter scale. Both microprobe data and Curie temperatures suggest that the average groundmass titanomagnetite composition in the southern EPR samples is approximately constant (modal modified ulvospinel content = 0.67) over a wide range of lava compositions. Saturation magnetization and saturation remanence are highly correlated with FeO* (R = 0.73 and 0.83, respectively), indicating that more iron-rich lavas have higher abundances of otherwise similar titanomagnetite. We show that there is a good correlation between natural remanent magnetization (NRM) and FeO*, provided that sufficient specimens are used to determine the average NRM of a sample (R = 0.63). Because the range of iron contents in mid-ocean ridge basalts is limited, the best fit slope (4.44 A/m per %FeO* in an ambient field of 0.030 mT) should provide reasonable bounds on the equatorial magnetization of submarine lavas (similar to 10 A/m at 8.5% FeO* and similar to 50 A/m at similar to 16% FeO*). Finally, we demonstrate that along-axis variations in NRM closely parallel geochemical changes along the southern EPR. Where magnetization values deviate significantly from those predicted from the range of measured FeO* contents, these discrepancies may reflect additional unrecognized geochemical variability.

Gee, JS, Meurer WP, Selkin PA, Cheadle MJ.  2004.  Quantifying three-dimensional silicate fabrics in cumulates using cumulative distribution functions. Journal of Petrology. 45:1983-2009.   10.1093/petrology/egh045   AbstractWebsite

We present a new method for quantifying three-dimensional silicate fabrics and the associated uncertainties from grain orientation data on three orthogonal sections. Our technique is applied to the orientation of crystallographic features and, hence, yields a fabric related to the lattice-preferred orientation, although the method could be applied to shape-preferred orientations or strain analysis based on passive linear markers. The orientation data for each section are represented by their cumulative distribution function, and an iterative procedure is used to find the symmetric second-rank strain tensor that will simultaneously satisfy the cumulative distribution functions observed on each section. For samples with well-developed fabrics, this technique provides a much closer match to the sectional data than do previous techniques based on eigenparameter analysis of two-dimensional orientation data. Robust uncertainty estimates are derived from a non-parametric bootstrap resampling scheme. The method is applied to two cumulates: one with a well-developed fabric and the other with a weak fabric, from the Stillwater complex, Montana. The silicate petrofabric orientations obtained for these samples compare favorably with independent direct estimates of the volume fabric from electron backscatter diffraction and magnetic techniques.

Gee, JS, Webb SC, Ridgway J, Staudigel H, Zumberge MA.  2001.  A deep tow magnetic survey of Middle Valley, Juan de Fuca Ridge. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems. 2   10.1029/2001GC000170   AbstractWebsite

We report here results from a deep tow magnetic survey over Middle Valley, Juan de Fuca Ridge. A series of track lines are combined to generate a high-resolution map of the magnetic field anomaly within a 10 x 12 km region surrounding the Bent Hill massive sulfide (BHMS) deposit. A uniformly magnetized body (5 A/m) with a cross section approximating the body inferred from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) drilling can account for the observed near-bottom magnetic anomaly amplitude. Assuming this magnetization is entirely induced, the average susceptibility (0.11 SI) corresponds to similar to3.5% magnetite + pyrrhotite by volume, consistent with the abundance of these phases observed in drill core samples. However, this uniform magnetization model significantly underestimates the magnetic anomaly measured a few meters above the seafloor by submersible, indicating that the upper portion of the sulfide mound must have a significantly higher magnetization (similar to 10% magnetite + pyrrhotite) than at deeper levels. On a larger scale, the near-bottom magnetic anomaly data show that basement magnetizations are not uniformly near zero, as had been inferred from analysis of the sea surface anomaly pattern. We interpret this heterogeneity as reflecting primarily differences in the degree of hydrothermal alteration. Our results highlight the potential of magnetic anomaly data for characterizing hydrothermal deposits where extensive drill core sampling is not available.

Gee, J, Tauxe L, Hildebrand JA, Staudigel H, Lonsdale P.  1988.  Nonuniform Magnetization of Jasper Seamount. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth and Planets. 93:12159-12175.   10.1029/JB093iB10p12159   AbstractWebsite

Paleopoles derived from seamounts have been used to reconstruct the tectonic history of ocean basins; however, the interpretation of seamount magnetization models and the validity of seamount paleopoles may be affected by inhomogeneous magnetization. Multibeam bathymetric data, sea surface and deep-tow magnetic field data, and paleomagnetic analyses of dredged samples were used to examine the origin of nonuniform magnetization within Jasper Seamount (30°27′N, 122°44′W). Models indicate that the seamount is predominantly reversely magnetized with local zones of normal polarity as corroborated by deep-tow measurements. Lithologies likely to be volumetrically important in a seamount edifice show highly variable magnetic properties. Basalts have high intensities (0.5–27.0 A/m), high Koenigsberger ratios (Q) and low viscous remanence (VRM) acquisition. Low Q ratios and high VRM acquisition coefficients of coarse-grained material and volcaniclastics suggest that they may have substantial viscous and induced components. Models for Jasper are characterized by low uniform intensities and far-sided paleopoles. The shallow model inclinations may be attributed to nondipolar components in the time-averaged geomagnetic field. The low intensities of the uniform models and the large nonuniform component in the seminorm solutions imply a complex distribution of magnetization sources within Jasper. This nonuniformity may result from either lithological variability or construction of the seamount spanning two or more polarity intervals.

Gee, J, Schneider DA, Kent DV.  1996.  Marine magnetic anomalies as recorders of geomagnetic intensity variations. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 144:327-335.   10.1016/s0012-821x(96)00184-7   AbstractWebsite

In addition to providing a robust record of past geomagnetic polarity reversals, marine magnetic anomalies often show shorter wavelength variations, which may provide information on geomagnetic intensity variations within intervals of constant polarity. To evaluate this possible geomagnetic signal, we compare sea surface profiles of the Central Anomaly with synthetic profiles based on Brunhes age (0-0.78 Ma) paleointensity records derived from deep sea sediments. The similarity of the synthetic profiles and observed profiles from the ultra-fast spreading southern East Pacific Rise suggests that geomagnetic intensity variations play an important role in the magnetization of the oceanic crust. This interpretation is further supported by systematic variations in the pattern of the Central Anomaly at slower spreading ridges, which are entirely consistent with a progressively smoother record of the sediment-derived paleointensity. If the sedimentary records, as calibrated to available absolute paleointensity data, accurately record variations in dipole intensity over the Brunhes, it follows that much of the Brunhes was characterized by geomagnetic intensities lower than either the mean dipole moment for the past 10 ka or the average for the period from 0.05 to 5.0 Ma. Furthermore, the sediment paleointensity records reflect the significant increase in geomagnetic intensity, from a low of similar to 2 x 10(22) Am-2 near 40 ka to a peak value (11 x 10(22) Am-2) at similar to 3 ka, that has been well documented from absolute paleointensity determinations, We suggest that geomagnetic intensity variations may be the most important cause of the rapid changes in the source layer magnetization near the ridge crest and the resultant Central Anomaly Magnetic High.

Gee, J, Staudigel H, Tauxe L, Pick T, Gallet Y.  1993.  Magnetization of the La Palma Seamount Series - Implications For Seamount Paleoples. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth. 98:11743-11767.   10.1029/93jb00932   AbstractWebsite

Paleopoles determined from seamount magnetic anomalies constitute the major data source for the Pacific apparent polar wander path, but relatively little is known about the processes of remanence acquisition in seamounts. Since magnetic anomalies reflect both natural remanence (NRM) and the induced field, it is important first to assess whether the NRM is likely to represent an original field direction and second to constrain the magnitude of the induced component. To this end, we present paleomagnetic data from an uplifted, subaerially exposed section through a seamount on La Palma, Canary Islands. The Pliocene Seamount Series of La Palma comprises a >6 km sequence of alkalic extrusives and intrusives which includes all lithologies likely to be volumetrically important in seamounts. The structural tilt of the Seamount Series allows separation of early thermal or chemical remanence from magnetization components acquired after tilting (e.g., viscous remanence). The NRM provides a poor indication of the original magnetization direction, although the characteristic magnetization of many La Palma samples is compatible with the original pretilt direction. Hydrothermal alteration has resulted in the production of Ti-poor magnetite and an increasing contribution of hematite with increasing degree of alteration. More importantly, well-defined magnetization directions which deviate from any reasonable geomagnetic direction at La Palma can be attributed to hydrothermal alteration in a different polarity than prevalent during the original magnetization. Based on a comparison of the magnitude of low-stability components of magnetization and laboratory acquisition of viscous remanence and previous estimates of the induced magnetization, we conclude that viscous and induced magnetization probably account for 15-25% of the total magnetization of seamounts. The resulting paleopole bias is a function of the polarity and paleolatitude of the seamount and ranges from 4-degrees to 16-degrees for Cretaceous seamounts in the Pacific.

Gee, JS, Cande SC, Hildebrand JA, Donnelly K, Parker RL.  2000.  Geomagnetic intensity variations over the past 780 kyr obtained from near-seafloor magnetic anomalies. Nature. 408:827-832.   10.1038/35048513   AbstractWebsite

Knowledge of past variations in the intensity of the Earth's magnetic field provides an important constraint on models of the geodynamo. A record of absolute palaeointensity for the past 50 kyr has been compiled from archaeomagnetic and volcanic materials, and relative palaeointensities over the past 800 kyr have been obtained from sedimentary sequences. But a long-term record of geomagnetic intensity should also be carried by the thermoremanence of the oceanic crust. Here we show that near-seafloor magnetic anomalies recorded over the southern East Pacific Rise are well correlated with independent estimates of geomagnetic intensity during the past 780 kyr. Moreover, the pattern of absolute palaeointensity of seafloor glass samples from the same area agrees with the well-documented dipole intensity pattern for the past 50 kyr. A comparison of palaeointensities derived from seafloor glass samples with global intensity variations thus allows us to estimate the ages of surficial lava flows in this region. The record of geomagnetic intensity preserved in the oceanic crust should provide a higher-time-resolution record of crustal accretion processes at mid-ocean ridges than has previously been obtainable.

Granot, R, Cande SC, Gee JS.  2009.  The implications of long-lived asymmetry of remanent magnetization across the North Pacific fracture zones. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 288:551-563.   10.1016/j.epsl.2009.10.017   AbstractWebsite

Large marine magnetic anomalies accompany the Pacific fracture zones (FZs) for thousands of kilometers. Although the origin of these anomalies is poorly understood, their underlying magnetization contrasts should reflect the temporal record of crustal accretion as well as geomagnetic field variations. Here we present an analysis of archival and newly collected magnetic anomaly profiles measured across three FZs from the North Pacific Cretaceous Quiet Zone (120.6 to 83 Ma) that are characterized by a remarkably uniform shape. Forward and inverse modeling indicate that these anomalies arise from remanent magnetization, with enhanced remanence located on one side of each FZ along the entire studied area. A comparison of geochemical and magnetic data from active ridge discontinuities and transform faults suggests that elevated iron content near segment ends is likely responsible for the observed anomalies in the Cretaceous Quiet Zone as well. A more complex magnetization setting is observed where the FZs contain multiple faults. There, the simple model of one-sided enhancements is only partly valid. Comparison between 3D forward modeling of the Quiet Zone magnetization and the calculated magnetization contrasts found across the Pioneer and Pau FZs suggests that the intensity of the geomagnetic field during the Cretaceous superchron had less than 50 percent variability about its average value. No major trends in the strength of the geomagnetic field during the superchron are observed. The presence of long-duration (> 30 m.y.) zones of enhanced magnetization along the young/old sides of the Pioneer/Pau FZs (both left-stepping) requires some long-lived asymmetry in crustal construction processes near ridge-transform intersections. Although the underlying mechanism that controls this long-lived asymmetry remains unclear, absolute plate motions might explain this asymmetry. Shorter period (few m.y.) variations in the amplitudes of the enhancements probably result from oscillations in crustal construction. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Granot, R, Tauxe L, Gee JS, Ron H.  2007.  A view into the Cretaceous geomagnetic field from analysis of gabbros and submarine glasses. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 256:1-11.   10.1016/j.epsl.2006.12.028   AbstractWebsite

The nature of the geomagnetic field during the Cretaceous normal polarity superchron (CNS) has been a matter of debate for several decades. Numerical geodynamo simulations predict higher intensities, but comparable variability, during times of few reversals than times with frequent reversals. Published geomagnetic paleointensity data from the CNS are highly scattered suggesting that additional studies are required. Here we present new paleointensity results from 18 sites collected from the lower oceanic crust of the Troodos ophiolite, Cyprus (92.1 Ma old). Together with recently published data from the Troodos upper crust we obtain three independent palcointensity time-series. These sequences reveal quasi-cyclic variations of intensities about a mean value of 54 +/- 20 Z Am(2), providing insight into the fluctuating nature of the Cretaceous magnetic field. Our data suggest the CNS field was both weaker and more variable than predicted by geodynamo simulations. The large amplitudes of these variations may explain the wide range of dipole moments previously determined from the CNS. (c) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

H
Herbert, TD, Gee J, DiDonna S.  1999.  Precessional cycles in Upper Cretaceous pelagic sediments of the South Atlantic; long-term patterns from high-frequency climate variations. Special Paper Geological Society of America. 332:105-120. Abstract
n/a
Horst, AJ, Varga RJ, Gee JS, Karson JA.  2014.  Diverse magma flow directions during construction of sheeted dike complexes at fast- to superfast-spreading centers. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 408:119-131.   10.1016/j.epsl.2014.09.022   AbstractWebsite

Dike intrusion is a fundamental process during upper oceanic crustal accretion at fast- to superfast-spreading ridges. Based on the distribution of magma along fast-spreading centers inferred from marine geophysical data, models predict systematic steep flow at magmatically robust segment centers and shallow magma flow toward distal segment ends. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) fabrics from 48 fully-oriented block samples of dikes from upper oceanic crust exposed at Hess Deep Rift and Pito Deep Rift reveal a wide range of magma flow directions that are not consistent with such simple magma supply models. The AMS is interpreted to arise from distribution anisotropy of titanomagnetite crystals based on weak shape-preferred orientation of opaque oxide and plagioclase crystals generally parallel to AMS maximum eigenvectors. Most dike samples show normal AMS fabrics with maximum eigenvector directions ranging from subvertical to subhorizontal. The distributions of inferred magma flow lineations from maximum eigenvectors show no preferred flow pattern, even after structural correction. We use a Kolmogorov Smirnov test (KS-test) to show that the distribution of bootstrapped flow lineation rakes from Pito Deep are not statistically distinct from Hess Deep, and neither are distinguishable from Oman and Troodos Ophiolite AMS data. Magma flow directions in sheeted dikes from these two seafloor escarpments also do not correlate with available geochemistry in any systematic way as previously predicted. These results indicate distinct compositional sources feed melt that is injected into dikes at fast- to superfast-spreading ridges with no preference for subhorizontal or subvertical magma flow. Collectively, results imply ephemeral melt lenses at different along-axis locations within the continuous axial magma chamber and either direct injection or intermingling of melt from other deeper ridge-centered or off-axis sources. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Horst, AJ, Varga RJ, Gee JS, Karson JA.  2011.  Paleomagnetic constraints on deformation of superfast-spread oceanic crust exposed at Pito Deep Rift. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth. 116   10.1029/2011jb008268   AbstractWebsite

The uppermost oceanic crust produced at the superfast spreading (similar to 142 km Ma(-1), full-spreading rate) southern East Pacific Rise (EPR) during the Gauss Chron is exposed in a tectonic window along the northeastern wall of the Pito Deep Rift. Paleomagnetic analysis of fully oriented dike (62) and gabbro (5) samples from two adjacent study areas yield bootstrapped mean remanence directions of 38.9 degrees +/- 8.1 degrees, -16.7 degrees +/- 15.6 degrees, n = 23 (Area A) and 30.4 degrees +/- 8.0 degrees, -25.1 degrees +/- 12.9 degrees, n = 44 (Area B), both are significantly distinct from the Geocentric Axial Dipole expected direction at 23 degrees S. Regional tectonics and outcrop-scale structural data combined with bootstrapped remanence directions constrain models that involve a sequence of three rotations that result in dikes restored to subvertical orientations related to (1) inward-tilting of crustal blocks during spreading (Area A = 11 degrees, Area B = 22 degrees), (2) clockwise, vertical-axis rotation of the Easter Microplate (A = 46 degrees, B = 44 degrees), and (3) block tilting at Pito Deep Rift (A = 21 degrees, B = 10 degrees). These data support a structural model for accretion at the southern EPR in which outcrop-scale faulting and block rotation accommodates spreading-related subaxial subsidence that is generally less than that observed in crust generated at a fast spreading rate exposed at Hess Deep Rift. These data also support previous estimates for the clockwise rotation of crust adjacent to the Easter Microplate. Dike sample natural remanent magnetization (NRM) has an arithmetic mean of 5.96 A/m +/- 3.76, which suggests that they significantly contribute to observed magnetic anomalies from fast- to superfast-spread crust.

Hurst, SD, Gee JS, Lawrence RM.  1997.  Data report; Reorientation of structural features at sites 920 to 924 using remanent magnetization and magnetic characteristics. Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results. 153:547-559.   10.2973/odp.proc.sr.153.040.1997   Abstract

Drilling at Ocean Drilling Program Sites 920 to 924 recovered core with a diverse set of pervasive structural elements. Site 920 recovered predominantly peridotitic rocks that display an early crystal-plastic fabric overprinted by at least five generations of veins. Sites 921 to 924 recovered gabbros that contain magmatic and metamorphic foliations and lineations developed to varying intensities throughout. Brittle features in the gabbro core include Cataclastic zones, faults, and several generations of veins. The characteristic magnetization direction was used to estimate the in situ orientation of structural features within the core. Although significant uncertainty is associated with the unknown effects of anisotropy and tectonic rotations on the rema- nent declinations, the corrected attitudes of the dominant foliations at Site 920 dip gently east-northeast, parallel to other obser- vations of seafloor structures in the area. Other vein generations and structural features in the rocks do not have a consistent orientation with respect to each other or a consistent variation with core depth. Sites 921-924 were drilled into a section of mostly gabbroic rocks that typically have complicated magnetic properties, with several remanence components identifiable during demagnetization. Reorientation of the gabbro cores is less certain because of the complexity of the remanent magnetiza- tion components, however, many structures in the gabbro from Hole 923A also seem to have gentle dips to the northeast after such a reorientation.

I
Ildefonse, B, Blackman DK, John BE, Ohara Y, Miller DJ, MacLeod CJ, Abe N, Abratis M, Andal ES, Andreani M, Awaji S, Beard JS, Brunelli D, Charney AB, Christie DM, Delacour AG, Delius H, Drouin M, Einaudi F, Escartin J, Frost BR, Fryer PB, Gee JS, Godard M, Grimes CB, Halfpenny A, Hansen HE, Harris AC, Hayman NW, Hellebrand E, Hirose T, Hirth JG, Ishimaru S, Johnson KTM, Karner GD, Linek M, Maeda J, Mason OU, McCaig AM, Michibayashi K, Morris A, Nakagawa T, Nozaka T, Rosner M, Searle RC, Suhr G, Tamura A, Tominaga M, von der Handt A, Yamasaki T, Zhao X, Integrated Ocean Drilling Program, Expedition 305 SSP.  2007.  Oceanic core complexes and crustal accretion at slow-spreading ridges. Geology. 35:623-626.   10.1130/G23531A.1   Abstract

Oceanic core complexes expose gabbroic rocks on the sealloor via detachment faulting, often associated with serpentinized peridotite. The thickness of these serpentinite units is unknown. Assuming that the steep slopes that typically surround these core complexes provide a cross section through the structure, it has been inferred that serpentinites compose much of the section to depths of at least several hundred meters. However, deep drilling at oceanic core complexes has recovered gabbroic sequences with virtually no serpentinized peridotite. We propose a revised model for oceanic core complex development based on consideration of the rheological differences between gabbro and serpentinized peridotite: emplacement of a large intrusive gabbro body into a predominantly peridotite host is followed by localization of strain around the margins of the pluton, eventually resulting in an uplifted gabbroic core surrounded by deformed serpentinite. Oceanic core complexes may therefore reflect processes associated with relatively enhanced periods of mafic intrusion within overall magma-poor regions of slow- and ultra-slow-spreading ridges.