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Gee, J, Schneider DA, Kent DV.  1996.  Marine magnetic anomalies as recorders of geomagnetic intensity variations. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 144:327-335.   10.1016/s0012-821x(96)00184-7   AbstractWebsite

In addition to providing a robust record of past geomagnetic polarity reversals, marine magnetic anomalies often show shorter wavelength variations, which may provide information on geomagnetic intensity variations within intervals of constant polarity. To evaluate this possible geomagnetic signal, we compare sea surface profiles of the Central Anomaly with synthetic profiles based on Brunhes age (0-0.78 Ma) paleointensity records derived from deep sea sediments. The similarity of the synthetic profiles and observed profiles from the ultra-fast spreading southern East Pacific Rise suggests that geomagnetic intensity variations play an important role in the magnetization of the oceanic crust. This interpretation is further supported by systematic variations in the pattern of the Central Anomaly at slower spreading ridges, which are entirely consistent with a progressively smoother record of the sediment-derived paleointensity. If the sedimentary records, as calibrated to available absolute paleointensity data, accurately record variations in dipole intensity over the Brunhes, it follows that much of the Brunhes was characterized by geomagnetic intensities lower than either the mean dipole moment for the past 10 ka or the average for the period from 0.05 to 5.0 Ma. Furthermore, the sediment paleointensity records reflect the significant increase in geomagnetic intensity, from a low of similar to 2 x 10(22) Am-2 near 40 ka to a peak value (11 x 10(22) Am-2) at similar to 3 ka, that has been well documented from absolute paleointensity determinations, We suggest that geomagnetic intensity variations may be the most important cause of the rapid changes in the source layer magnetization near the ridge crest and the resultant Central Anomaly Magnetic High.

Tauxe, L, Gee J, Gallet Y, Pick T, Bown T.  1994.  Magnetostratigraphy of the Willwood Formation, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming - New Constraints on the Location of Paleocene Eocene Boundary. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 125:159-172.   10.1016/0012-821x(94)90213-5   AbstractWebsite

The lower Eocene Willwood Formation in the Bighorn Basin of Wyoming preserves a rich and diverse mammalian and floral record. The paleomagnetic behavior of the sequence of floodplain paleosols of varying degrees of maturation ranges from excellent to poor. We present a magnetostratigraphic section for a composite section near Worland, Wyoming, by using a set of strict criteria for interpreting the step-wise alternating field and thermal demagnetization data of 266 samples from 90 sites throughout the composite section. Correlation to the geomagnetic reversal time scale was achieved by combining magnetostratigraphic and biostratigraphic data from this section, from a section in the Clark's Fork Basin in northern Wyoming, and from DSDP Site 550, with the isotopic date determined on a tuff near the top of our section. Our correlation suggests that the Bighorn Basin composite section in the Worland area spans from within Chron C24r to near the top of Chron C24n, or from approximately 55 to 52 Ma. This correlation places the Paleocene/Eocene boundary within the vicinity of the base of the section. Cryptochron C24r.6 of Cande and Kent is tentatively identified some 100 m above the base of the section. The temporal framework provided here enables correlation of the mammalian biostratigraphy of the Bighorn Basin to other continental sequences as well as to marine records. It also provides independent chronological information for the calculation of sediment accumulation rates to constrain soil maturation rates. We exclude an age as young as 53 Ma for the Paleocene/Eocene boundary and support older ages, as recommended in recent time scales. The location of a tuff dated at 52.8 +/- 0.3 Ma at the older boundary C24n.1 is consistent with the, age of 52.5 Ma estimated by Cande and Kent and inconsistent with that of 53.7 Ma, from Harland et al.

Friedman, R, Gee J, Tauxe L, Downing K, Lindsay E.  1992.  The Magnetostratigraphy of the Chitarwata and Lower Vihowa Formations of the Dera-Ghazi-Khan Area, Pakistan. Sedimentary Geology. 81:253-268.   10.1016/0037-0738(92)90074-2   AbstractWebsite

Three sections of the Chitarwata and lower Vihowa formations were sampled along the Dalana River on the southeastern flank of the Zinda Pir Dome in the southern Sulaiman Range near Dera Ghazi Khan, Pakistan. Together they provide nearly 800 m of a continuous sedimentary record of the Miocene derived from the uplifted Himalayan highlands. Previous studies have examined the Middle and Upper Miocene sediments, the Siwalik Group, of the Potwar Plateau to the north. However, detailed investigations of earlier periods are impossible in that area due to the absence of Oligocene and Lower Miocene sediments caused by continued overthrusting associated with the Himalayan orogeny. Fortunately, the Sulaiman basin to the south, which was further removed from the tectonic activity, provides a record of the Early Miocene in the form of the Chitarwata Formation. The Dalana A, B, and C sections (DGA, DGB, and DGC) were examined and sampled for this study. A magnetostratigraphic analysis was carried out to correlate and date the Chitarwata and Vihowa formations exposed in this area. The samples were subjected to step-wise demagnetization to resolve the primary and secondary remanent magnetization components. Thermal demagnetization trajectories indicate that the majority of samples have sufficient internal consistency that their calculated polarities are reliable. Likewise, the majority of the 126 measured sites showed statistically significant agreement between the three measured samples per site. However, the bimodal data set does not pass the reversal test and so is deemed unsuitable for tectonic interpretations. The individual sections were initially correlated using lithologic and stratigraphic methods, and the relationship was reinforced by the magnetostratigraphy. The composite DG section was tentatively correlated with the standard magnetic polarity time scale placing the disconformable base of the Chitarwata in the DGA section at just older than 22 Ma, the Chitarwata/Vihowa contact at 18.6 Ma, and the top of the Vihowa in the DGC section at about 16 Ma. The assignment of these dates to the Chitarwata will aid in future biostratigraphic and lithostratigraphic correlation of Early Miocene sediments, effectively extending the well-established Siwalik faunal sequence back by four million years.

Gee, J, Klootwijk CT, Smith GM.  1991.  Magnetostratigraphy of Paleogene and upper Cretaceous sediments from Broken Ridge, eastern Indian Ocean. Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results. 121:359-376.   10.2973/odp.proc.sr.121.151.1991   Abstract

Broken Ridge represents a fragment of the oceanic Kerguelen-Heard platform, constructed at high southern latitudes in the middle Cretaceous and rifted apart during the middle Eocene (43-45 Ma). The approximately 1400-m section of prerift sedimentson Broken Ridge preserves a polarity sequence that spans the middle Eocene to Upper Cretaceous (Chrons Cl 8/C20 to C34), including a 500-m continuous sequence from the lower Eocene (C23R) to the Maestrichtian/Campanian boundary (C32R). The polarity record, together with biostratigraphic data, provides a well-constrained time framework for interpreting the history of Broken Ridge. Inclinations in the lower portion of the section are generally 5°-10° shallower than the expected geocentric axial dipole inclination.Comparison of inclination and porosity changes with stratigraphic depth suggests the importance of compaction in generating these shallow inclinations. Changes in the magnetic fabric, reflected in the anisotropy of anhysteretic remanence, provide additional support for this interpretation.

Gee, J, Staudigel H, Tauxe L, Pick T, Gallet Y.  1993.  Magnetization of the La Palma Seamount Series - Implications For Seamount Paleoples. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth. 98:11743-11767.   10.1029/93jb00932   AbstractWebsite

Paleopoles determined from seamount magnetic anomalies constitute the major data source for the Pacific apparent polar wander path, but relatively little is known about the processes of remanence acquisition in seamounts. Since magnetic anomalies reflect both natural remanence (NRM) and the induced field, it is important first to assess whether the NRM is likely to represent an original field direction and second to constrain the magnitude of the induced component. To this end, we present paleomagnetic data from an uplifted, subaerially exposed section through a seamount on La Palma, Canary Islands. The Pliocene Seamount Series of La Palma comprises a >6 km sequence of alkalic extrusives and intrusives which includes all lithologies likely to be volumetrically important in seamounts. The structural tilt of the Seamount Series allows separation of early thermal or chemical remanence from magnetization components acquired after tilting (e.g., viscous remanence). The NRM provides a poor indication of the original magnetization direction, although the characteristic magnetization of many La Palma samples is compatible with the original pretilt direction. Hydrothermal alteration has resulted in the production of Ti-poor magnetite and an increasing contribution of hematite with increasing degree of alteration. More importantly, well-defined magnetization directions which deviate from any reasonable geomagnetic direction at La Palma can be attributed to hydrothermal alteration in a different polarity than prevalent during the original magnetization. Based on a comparison of the magnitude of low-stability components of magnetization and laboratory acquisition of viscous remanence and previous estimates of the induced magnetization, we conclude that viscous and induced magnetization probably account for 15-25% of the total magnetization of seamounts. The resulting paleopole bias is a function of the polarity and paleolatitude of the seamount and ranges from 4-degrees to 16-degrees for Cretaceous seamounts in the Pacific.

Gee, J, Kent DV.  1997.  Magnetization of axial lavas from the southern East Pacific Rise (14 degrees-23 degrees S): Geochemical controls on magnetic properties. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth. 102:24873-24886.   10.1029/97jb02544   AbstractWebsite

Although the spatial association of iron-rich lavas and high-amplitude magnetic anomalies is well documented, a causal link between enhanced iron content and high remanent magnetization has been difficult to establish. Here we report magnetic data from approximately 250 samples, with 8-16% FeO* (total iron as FeO), from the southern East Pacific Rise (EPR) that provide strong support for the presumed geochemical dependence of remanent intensity. The limited age range (0-6 ka) of axial lavas from this ultrafast spreading ridge (similar to 150 mm/yr full rate) effectively minimizes variations resulting from time dependent chan or low-temperature alteration. Systematic sampling relative to the chilled margin illustrates that substantial grain size-related variations in magnetic properties occur on a centimeter scale. Both microprobe data and Curie temperatures suggest that the average groundmass titanomagnetite composition in the southern EPR samples is approximately constant (modal modified ulvospinel content = 0.67) over a wide range of lava compositions. Saturation magnetization and saturation remanence are highly correlated with FeO* (R = 0.73 and 0.83, respectively), indicating that more iron-rich lavas have higher abundances of otherwise similar titanomagnetite. We show that there is a good correlation between natural remanent magnetization (NRM) and FeO*, provided that sufficient specimens are used to determine the average NRM of a sample (R = 0.63). Because the range of iron contents in mid-ocean ridge basalts is limited, the best fit slope (4.44 A/m per %FeO* in an ambient field of 0.030 mT) should provide reasonable bounds on the equatorial magnetization of submarine lavas (similar to 10 A/m at 8.5% FeO* and similar to 50 A/m at similar to 16% FeO*). Finally, we demonstrate that along-axis variations in NRM closely parallel geochemical changes along the southern EPR. Where magnetization values deviate significantly from those predicted from the range of measured FeO* contents, these discrepancies may reflect additional unrecognized geochemical variability.

Gee, J, Kent DV.  1998.  Magnetic telechemistry and magmatic segmentation on the southern east Pacific rise. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 164:379-385.   10.1016/s0012-821x(98)00231-3   AbstractWebsite

Results from axial dredges and a profile inversion of magnetic anomaly data along the axis of the East Pacific Rise (EPR) at 13-23 degrees S provide an estimate of the average degree of fractionation for the extrusive layer at this ultrafast-spreading (similar to 145 mm/yr full rate) ridge. We find a high correlation (R = 0.81) between dredge mean FeO* (total iron as FeO) and natural remanence for 34 axial dredges with multiple samples having coincident geochemical and magnetic data. We attribute this good correlation to detailed sampling spanning the full range of cooling-related magnetization changes within a flow and to the young age (0-6 ka) of these axial samples, which effectively minimizes time-dependent magnetization changes due to geomagnetic intensity or alteration. A composite axial magnetic anomaly profile shows large amplitude (up to 400 nT) fluctuations with wavelengths of 50-200 km, which theoretical considerations suggest can reliably be related to the magnetization directly beneath the ship. For much of the southern EPR, seismic data provide independent limits on the axial thickness (259 +/- 55 m) and the pattern of off-axis thickening of the extrusive magnetic source layer. These data also provide evidence for an axial magma lens that effectively eliminates anomaly contributions from deeper magnetic sources. Inversion of the axial magnetic anomaly data utilizing these geophysical constraints yields a magnetization solution which, through use of the regression relating FeO* and natural remanence, may be related to the average degree of differentiation of the extrusive source layer. The magnetic data reveal a pattern of magmatic segmentation that closely parallels the tectonic segmentation of the ridge, suggesting that magma supply may be an important control on the average degree of differentiation of the extrusive layer. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Smith, GM, Gee J, Klootwijk CT.  1991.  Magnetic petrology of basalts from Ninetyeast Ridge. Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results. 121:525-545.   10.2973/odp.proc.sr.121.154.1991   Abstract

Given the importance of the inversion of seamount magnetic anomalies, particularly to the motion of the Pacific plate, it is important to gain a better understanding of the nature of the magnetic source of these features. Although different in detail, Ninetyeast Ridge is composed of submarine and subaerial igneous rocks that are similar to those found at many seamounts, making it a suitable proxy. We report here on the magnetic petrology of a collection of samples from Ninetyeast Ridge in the Indian Ocean. Our purpose is to determine the relationship between primary petrology, subsequent alteration, and magnetic properties of the recovered rocks. Such information will eventually lead to a more complete understanding of the magnetization of seamounts and presumably improvements in the accuracy of anomaly inversions. Three basement sites were drilled on Ninetyeast Ridge, with recovery of subaerial basalt flows at the first two (Sites 756 and 757) and submarine massive and pillow flows at the final one (Site 758). The three sites were distinctly different. Site 756 was dominated by ilmenite. What titanomagnetite was present had undergone deuteric alteration and secondary hematite was present in many samples. The magnetization was moderate and stable although it yielded a paleolatitude somewhat lower than expected. Site 757 was highly oxidized, presumably while above sea level. It was dominated by primary titanomagnetite, which was deuterically altered. Secondary hematite was common. Magnetization was relatively weak but quite stable. The paleolatitude for all but the lowermost flows was approximately 40° lower than expected. Site 758 was also dominated by primary titanomagnetite. There was relatively little oxidation with most primary titanomagnetite showing no evidence of high-temperature alteration. No secondary hematite was in evidence. This site had the highest magnetization of the three (although somewhat low relative to other seamounts) but was relatively unstable with significant viscous remanence in many samples. Paleolatitude was close to the expected value. It is not possible, at present, to confidently associate these rocks with specific locations in a seamount structure. A possible and highly speculative model would place rocks similar to Site 757 near the top of the edifice, Site 756 lower down but still erupted above sea level, and Site 758 underlying these units, erupted while the seamount was still below sea level.

Gee, J, Nakanishi M.  1995.  Magnetic petrology and magnetic properties of western Pacific guyots; implications for seamount paleopoles. Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results. 144:615-630.   10.2973/odp.proc.sr.144.020.1995   Abstract

Despite the importance of seamount paleopoles in reconstructing past tectonic motions of the Pacific Plate, few data exist on the magnetic properties and processes of remanence acquisition in seamounts. We present a basic magnetic characterization and a detailed petrographic and microprobe study of the oxide minerals in mildly to strongly alkalic lavas recovered from five western Pacific guyots sampled during Ocean Drilling Program Leg 144. The Ti-rich chrome spinel compositions and Al- and Mg-enrich- ment in titanomagnetites reflect the alkalic nature of the lavas. The alteration history of these samples is diverse, ranging from low-temperature oxidation to highly oxidizing conditions resulting in an assemblage of magnesioferrite + titanohematite. The natural remanent magnetization (NRM) intensities for all five guyots are quite similar, yielding a combined arithmetic mean NRM intensity of 3.53 A/m, similar to previously reported values from dredged and drilled seamount material. The mean Königsberger ratio (9.8) implies an approximate 10% contribution of induced magnetization. Systematic discrepancies between the observed inclinations and inclinations derived from the magnetic anomaly data for Lo-En, MIT, and Takuyo-Daisan guyots are compatible with a significant bias from viscous and induced magnetization in these Cretaceous guyots.

Gee, J, Kent DV.  1995.  Magnetic Histeresis in Young Midocean Ridge Basalts - Dominant Cubic Anisotropy. Geophysical Research Letters. 22:551-554.   10.1029/95gl00263   AbstractWebsite

Magnetic hysteresis data from young mid-ocean ridge basalts include samples with saturation remanence to saturation magnetization (Mrs/Ms) ratios greater than 0.5, the theoretical limit for an assemblage of single domain grains with uniaxial anisotropy. Under the usual assumption of dominant uniaxial anisotropy, the narrow single domain grain size distribution implied by these high Mrs/Ms values is difficult to reconcile with petrographic and remanence data that suggest the presence of larger multidomain grains. Dominant cubic anisotropy provides a plausible explanation for the high Mrs/Ms ratios, and if generally valid, requires reinterpretation of granulometric and domain state inferences made from hysteresis data.

Lawrence, RM, Gee JS, Karson JA.  2002.  Magnetic anisotropy of serpentinized peridotites from the MARK area: Implications for the orientation of mesoscopic structures and major fault zones. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth. 107   10.1029/2000jb000007   AbstractWebsite

[1] Mantle-derived serpentinized peridotites are exposed both along fracture zones and in areas of extreme tectonic extension at slow to intermediate spreading ridges and may constitute a significant volume of the shallow crust in these environments. Here we examine the potential of magnetic remanence data and structural features in serpentinized peridotites from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 920 (Mid-Atlantic Ridge south of Kane, MARK) to provide insights into the tectonic processes responsible for the exposure of these deep-seated rocks at the seafloor. Paleomagnetic data from 214 samples from Site 920 document a remarkably consistent inclination (36.1degrees +0.8degrees/ -1.4degrees) that is shallower than either the expected geocentric axial dipole inclination (40.7degrees) or present-day inclination (41.9degrees) at the site. We show that the nearly univectorial remanence in these samples is likely to be a partial thermoremanence, possibly augmented by viscous processes at moderate temperatures. These properties were acquired during cooling from the relatively high temperatures (> 350 degreesC) at which serpentinization occurred. The remanence directions therefore provide some information on the latest stages of uplift of the serpentinite massif. However, interpretation of this tectonic history is complicated by the presence of a pronounced magnetic fabric, which presumably resulted in a deflection of the remanence. We estimate the magnitude and direction of this deflection using a relationship between the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility and remanence anisotropy. The corrected remanent inclinations (mean 39.5degrees) more closely approximates the time-averaged inclination at the site, indicating that the massif experienced little or no resolvable tilt after serpentinization and cooling to 350 degreesC. Accounting for the anisotropy-related deflection of the remanence also allows us to more accurately restore various structural features within the core to their geographic orientation. After this reorientation the dominant mesoscopic foliation in these rocks, defined by the preferred orientation of orthopyroxene and subparallel serpentine veins, has an average orientation that closely parallels the regional-scale fault zones on the western median valley wall.

Lawrence, RM, Gee JS, Hurst SD.  1997.  Magnetic anisotropy in serpentinized peridotites from Site 920; its origin and relationship to deformation fabrics. Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results. 153:419-427.   10.2973/odp.proc.sr.153.041.1997   Abstract

Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) measurements on serpentinized peridotites from Ocean Drilling Program Site 920 reveal a strong magnetic "fabric," typically characterized by an oblate susceptibility ellipsoid. Curie temperatures and max- imum unblocking temperatures near 580°C, as well as petrographic observations, suggest that magnetite is the sole magnetic carrier in the serpentinites. Because the magnetic mineralogy is dominated by coarse-grained magnetite, the susceptibility ellip- soid should provide a three-dimensional image of the average elongation of magnetite grains or grain clusters. Petrographic studies of three orthogonal thin sections from a limited number of samples indicate that the preferred shape orientation of mag- netite grain clusters correlates well with the apparent susceptibility maxima and minima in these planes. The magnetite long- axis preferred orientation is typically within -20° of the maximum principal axis of the susceptibility ellipsoid. The close corre- spondence between the magnetic foliation and the orientation of magnetite-bearing serpentine veins, together with the petro- graphic evidence for the distribution of magnetite, suggests that the magnetic "fabric" is primarily a reflection of the orientation of these veins. Hence, the AMS ellipsoid may be a more accurate descriptor of the integrated three-dimensional vein orienta- tions than visual orientation measurements made on the split cores.

Selkin, PA, Gee JS, Meurer WP.  2014.  Magnetic anisotropy as a tracer of crystal accumulation and transport, Middle Banded Series, Stillwater Complex, Montana. Tectonophysics. 629:123-137.   10.1016/j.tecto.2014.03.028   AbstractWebsite

Fabric studies of layered mafic intrusions have led to improved understanding of the mechanical processes operating in large magma chambers, including crystal accumulation and crystal mush deformation. Such studies, however, are typically limited by a tradeoff between breadth (number of sites studied, characteristic of field-focused work) and sensitivity (ability to discern subtle fabric elements, characteristic of laboratory fabric analyses). Magnetic anisotropy, if analyzed in a systematic way and supported by single-crystal and petrofabric measurements, permits relatively rapid characterization of magmatic fabrics for large numbers of samples. Here we present the results of a study of remanence and susceptibility anisotropy from three transects through the Middle Banded Series of the Stillwater Complex, Montana. All three transects exhibit a magnetic foliation that increases with stratigraphic height up to the top of Olivine Bearing Zone III, consistent with crystal mush compaction. Perhaps more importantly, each tansect is characterized by a subtle lineation in the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility with a consistent direction within that transect The magnetic lineation directions, which generally coincide with crystallographic preferred orientations of silicate minerals, likely record a pre-compaction fabric. Lineation directions differ from one transect to another, implying that the process generating the lineation - either slumping of a semiconsolidated crystal mush or magma transport - acted on length scales of at most a few km. These results demonstrate the sensitivity of magnetic anisotropy to petrofabric in mafic rocks. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Kent, DV, Gee J.  1996.  Magnetic alteration of zero-age oceanic basalt. Geology. 24:703-706.   10.1130/0091-7613(1996)024<0703:maozao>2.3.co;2   AbstractWebsite

The youngest sampled submarine lava flow, which erupted June 1993 on the Juan de Fuca Ridge, provides the basis for a tight constraint on the initial or zero-age magnetization state of MORE, Detailed profiles of magnetic hysteresis parameters, Curie temperatures, and unblocking temperatures of NRM with respect to the chilled margin of a pillow fragment show evidence of significant oxidation, which preferentially affected the finest grain-size fraction and principal remanence carrier of the titanomagnetite magnetic mineralogy. The oxidation must have occurred during or immediately after initial cooling, implying that MORE is already appreciably magnetically altered before aging. Nevertheless, successful results of Thellier paleointensity experiments on the basalt sample lend support to the idea that crustal magnetization represented by MORE preserves a record of geomagnetic intensity variations that may be reflected in small-scale magnetic anomalies.