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2009
Morris, A, Gee JS, Pressling N, John BE, MacLeod CJ, Grimes CB, Searle RC.  2009.  Footwall rotation in an oceanic core complex quantified using reoriented Integrated Ocean Drilling Program core samples. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 287:217-228.   10.1016/j.epsl.2009.08.007   AbstractWebsite

Oceanic core complexes expose lower crustal and upper mantle rocks on the seafloor by tectonic unroofing in the footwalls of large-slip detachment faults. The common occurrence of these structures in slow and ultra-slow spread oceanic crust suggests that they accommodate a significant component of plate divergence. However, the subsurface geometry of detachment faults in oceanic core complexes remains unclear. Competing models involve either: (a) displacement on planar, low-angle faults with little tectonic rotation; or (b) progressive shallowing by rotation of initially steeply dipping faults as a result of flexural unloading (the "rolling-hinge" model). We address this debate using palaeomagnetic remanences as markers for tectonic rotation within a unique 1.4 km long footwall section of gabbroic rocks recovered by Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) sampling at Atlantis Massif oceanic core complex on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR). These rocks contain a complex record of multipolarity magnetizations that are unrelated to alteration and igneous stratigraphy in the sampled section and are inferred to result from progressive cooling of the footwall section over geomagnetic polarity chrons C1r.2r, C1r.1n (Jaramillo) and C1r.1r. For the first time we have independently reoriented drill-core samples of lower crustal gabbros, that were initially azimuthally unconstrained, to a true geographic reference frame by correlating structures in individual core pieces with those identified from oriented imagery of the borehole wall. This allows reorientation of the palaeomagnetic data, placing far more rigorous constraints on the tectonic history than those possible using only palaeomagnetic inclination data. Analysis of the reoriented high temperature reversed component of magnetization indicates a 46 degrees +/- 6 degrees anticlockwise rotation of the footwall around a MAR-parallel horizontal axis trending 011 degrees +/- 6 degrees. Reoriented lower temperature components of normal and reversed polarity suggest that much of this rotation occurred after the end of the Jaramillo chron (0.99 Ma). The data provide unequivocal confirmation of the key prediction of flexural, rolling-hinge models for oceanic core complexes, whereby oceanic detachment faults initiate at higher dips and rotate to their present day low-angle geometries as displacement increases. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Granot, R, Cande SC, Gee JS.  2009.  The implications of long-lived asymmetry of remanent magnetization across the North Pacific fracture zones. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 288:551-563.   10.1016/j.epsl.2009.10.017   AbstractWebsite

Large marine magnetic anomalies accompany the Pacific fracture zones (FZs) for thousands of kilometers. Although the origin of these anomalies is poorly understood, their underlying magnetization contrasts should reflect the temporal record of crustal accretion as well as geomagnetic field variations. Here we present an analysis of archival and newly collected magnetic anomaly profiles measured across three FZs from the North Pacific Cretaceous Quiet Zone (120.6 to 83 Ma) that are characterized by a remarkably uniform shape. Forward and inverse modeling indicate that these anomalies arise from remanent magnetization, with enhanced remanence located on one side of each FZ along the entire studied area. A comparison of geochemical and magnetic data from active ridge discontinuities and transform faults suggests that elevated iron content near segment ends is likely responsible for the observed anomalies in the Cretaceous Quiet Zone as well. A more complex magnetization setting is observed where the FZs contain multiple faults. There, the simple model of one-sided enhancements is only partly valid. Comparison between 3D forward modeling of the Quiet Zone magnetization and the calculated magnetization contrasts found across the Pioneer and Pau FZs suggests that the intensity of the geomagnetic field during the Cretaceous superchron had less than 50 percent variability about its average value. No major trends in the strength of the geomagnetic field during the superchron are observed. The presence of long-duration (> 30 m.y.) zones of enhanced magnetization along the young/old sides of the Pioneer/Pau FZs (both left-stepping) requires some long-lived asymmetry in crustal construction processes near ridge-transform intersections. Although the underlying mechanism that controls this long-lived asymmetry remains unclear, absolute plate motions might explain this asymmetry. Shorter period (few m.y.) variations in the amplitudes of the enhancements probably result from oscillations in crustal construction. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

2004
Varga, RJ, Karson JA, Gee JS.  2004.  Paleomagnetic constraints on deformation models for uppermost oceanic crust exposed at the Hess Deep Rift: Implications for axial processes at the East Pacific Rise. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth. 109   10.1029/2003jb002486   AbstractWebsite

Studies of oceanic crust exposed in tectonic windows and in ophiolites have revealed the importance of normal faulting and attendant tilting of upper crustal rock units in the accretion process at oceanic spreading centers. We present paleomagnetic remanence data from 45 fully oriented samples from dikes, gabbros and a small number of basaltic lavas from fast spread crust exposed along the Hess Deep Rift. Over similar to25 km along this escarpment, dikes and dike-subparallel fault zones dip consistently away from the East Pacific Rise (EPR) while lava flows dip toward the ridge. Underlying gabbro is less deformed but contains widely spaced, low-angle fractures, tentatively interpreted as shear zones. As expected from the crustal age (similar to1.07-1.48 Ma), most remanence data indicate reversed polarity magnetization and are compatible with the expected range of secular variation at the site. Overly steep and directionally scattered gabbro remanence and observed low-angle shear structures within this unit are tentatively interpreted as the manifestation of three-dimensional strain along anastomosing shear zones. Although some remanence directions are incompatible with any plausible deformation history, and thus likely reflect orientation errors, the overall data set is consistent with a model involving sequential rotations on (1) outward dipping, EPR-parallel (similar toN-S) normal faults and (2) Hess Deep Rift-parallel (similar toE-W) normal faults Average rotations for these sequential events are 22degrees to the east (defined by the mean dike attitude) and 10degrees to the south (estimated by bathymetry), respectively. This model best explains the remanence data, observed dikes and lava orientations, presence of dike-parallel fault zones, and the observation of steep, little deformed dikes cutting both east dipping dikes and faults. The data support a structural model for spreading at the EPR in which outcrop-scale faulting and rotation is linked to subaxial subsidence and to consequent development of dominantly outward facing normal faults close to the spreading axis. Because these faults form within the neovolcanic zone, they are subject to burial and are expected to have subdued to little surface expression.

2002
Meurer, WP, Gee J.  2002.  Evidence for the protracted construction of slow-spread oceanic crust by small magmatic injections. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 201:45-55.   10.1016/s0012-821x(02)00660-x   AbstractWebsite

Gabbroic cumulates drilled south of the Kane Transform Fault on the slow-spread Mid-Atlantic Ridge preserve up to three discrete magnetization components. Here we use absolute age constraints derived from the paleomagnetic data to develop a model for the magmatic construction of this section of the lower oceanic crust. By comparing the paleomagnetic data with mineral compositions, and based on thermal models of local reheating, we infer that magmas that began crystallizing in the upper mantle intruded into the lower oceanic crust and formed meter-scale sills. Some of these magmas were crystal-laden and the subsequent expulsion of interstitial liquid from them produced 'cumulus' sills. These small-scale magmatic injections took place over at least 210 000 years and at distances of similar to3 km from the ridge axis and may have formed much of the lower crust. This model explains many of the complexities described in this area and can be used to help understand the general formation of oceanic crust at slow-spread ridges. (C) 2002 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

Lawrence, RM, Gee JS, Karson JA.  2002.  Magnetic anisotropy of serpentinized peridotites from the MARK area: Implications for the orientation of mesoscopic structures and major fault zones. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth. 107   10.1029/2000jb000007   AbstractWebsite

[1] Mantle-derived serpentinized peridotites are exposed both along fracture zones and in areas of extreme tectonic extension at slow to intermediate spreading ridges and may constitute a significant volume of the shallow crust in these environments. Here we examine the potential of magnetic remanence data and structural features in serpentinized peridotites from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 920 (Mid-Atlantic Ridge south of Kane, MARK) to provide insights into the tectonic processes responsible for the exposure of these deep-seated rocks at the seafloor. Paleomagnetic data from 214 samples from Site 920 document a remarkably consistent inclination (36.1degrees +0.8degrees/ -1.4degrees) that is shallower than either the expected geocentric axial dipole inclination (40.7degrees) or present-day inclination (41.9degrees) at the site. We show that the nearly univectorial remanence in these samples is likely to be a partial thermoremanence, possibly augmented by viscous processes at moderate temperatures. These properties were acquired during cooling from the relatively high temperatures (> 350 degreesC) at which serpentinization occurred. The remanence directions therefore provide some information on the latest stages of uplift of the serpentinite massif. However, interpretation of this tectonic history is complicated by the presence of a pronounced magnetic fabric, which presumably resulted in a deflection of the remanence. We estimate the magnitude and direction of this deflection using a relationship between the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility and remanence anisotropy. The corrected remanent inclinations (mean 39.5degrees) more closely approximates the time-averaged inclination at the site, indicating that the massif experienced little or no resolvable tilt after serpentinization and cooling to 350 degreesC. Accounting for the anisotropy-related deflection of the remanence also allows us to more accurately restore various structural features within the core to their geographic orientation. After this reorientation the dominant mesoscopic foliation in these rocks, defined by the preferred orientation of orthopyroxene and subparallel serpentine veins, has an average orientation that closely parallels the regional-scale fault zones on the western median valley wall.

1999
Varga, RJ, Gee JS, Bettison-Varga L, Anderson RS, Johnson CL.  1999.  Early establishment of seafloor hydrothermal systems during structural extension: paleomagnetic evidence from the Troodos ophiolite, Cyprus. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 171:221-235.   10.1016/s0012-821x(99)00147-8   AbstractWebsite

Paleomagnetic data from the Troodos ophiolite are used to help constrain models for the relationship between extensional normal faulting and hydrothermal alteration related to production of large-tonnage sulfide deposits at oceanic ridges. We have sampled dikes from the Troodos sheeted complex that have been subjected to variable hydrothermal alteration, from greenschist alteration typical of the low water/rock mass ratio interactions outside of hydrothermal upflow zones as well as from severely recrystallized rocks (epidosites) altered within high water/rock mass ratio hydrothermal upflow zones in the root zones beneath large sulfide ore deposits. These dikes are moderately to highly tilted from their initial near-vertical orientations due to rotations in the hangingwalls of approximately dike-parallel, oceanic normal faults. Comparison of characteristic remanence directions from these dikes with the Late Cretaceous Troodos reference direction, therefore, allows a tilt test to determine whether remanent magnetizations were acquired prior to or subsequent to tilting. Remanence directions for both greenschist and epidosite dikes show similar magnitudes of tilting due to rotational normal faulting and restore to the Late Cretaceous Troodos reference direction upon restoration of dikes to near-vertical positions about a NNW-trending, horizontal axis. These data, along with field observations of focused alteration along normal faults, suggest that epidosite alteration occurred during the early stages of extensional tilting and prior to significant rotation. This sequence of events is similar to that observed for creation of large-tonnage sulfide bodies at intermediate to slow spreading centers which form soon after cessation of magmatism and during the early stages of structural extension. We suggest that the dike-parallel normal faults were initiated as extensional fractures during this early stage of crustal extension, thus providing the necessary permeability for focused fluid flow, and that later slip along these structures during rotational-planar normal faulting caused reduction in permeability due to gouge formation. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

1997
Hurst, SD, Gee JS, Lawrence RM.  1997.  Data report; Reorientation of structural features at sites 920 to 924 using remanent magnetization and magnetic characteristics. Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results. 153:547-559.   10.2973/odp.proc.sr.153.040.1997   Abstract

Drilling at Ocean Drilling Program Sites 920 to 924 recovered core with a diverse set of pervasive structural elements. Site 920 recovered predominantly peridotitic rocks that display an early crystal-plastic fabric overprinted by at least five generations of veins. Sites 921 to 924 recovered gabbros that contain magmatic and metamorphic foliations and lineations developed to varying intensities throughout. Brittle features in the gabbro core include Cataclastic zones, faults, and several generations of veins. The characteristic magnetization direction was used to estimate the in situ orientation of structural features within the core. Although significant uncertainty is associated with the unknown effects of anisotropy and tectonic rotations on the rema- nent declinations, the corrected attitudes of the dominant foliations at Site 920 dip gently east-northeast, parallel to other obser- vations of seafloor structures in the area. Other vein generations and structural features in the rocks do not have a consistent orientation with respect to each other or a consistent variation with core depth. Sites 921-924 were drilled into a section of mostly gabbroic rocks that typically have complicated magnetic properties, with several remanence components identifiable during demagnetization. Reorientation of the gabbro cores is less certain because of the complexity of the remanent magnetiza- tion components, however, many structures in the gabbro from Hole 923A also seem to have gentle dips to the northeast after such a reorientation.

1996
Gee, JS, Lawrence RM, Hurst SD.  1996.  Remanence characteristics of gabbros from the MARK area; implications for crustal magnetization. Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results. 153:429-436.   10.2973/odp.proc.sr.153.042.1997   Abstract

Although the general concept of linear magnetic anomalies generated by seafloor spreading processes is well established, the details of the source distribution responsible for these anomalies remain uncertain. We summarize here magnetic properties from variably altered and deformed olivine gabbro, gabbro, and less abundant troctolite, gabbronorite, and oxide gabbros sam- pled at four sites drilled on the western median valley wall of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge south of the Kane Fracture Zone. The overall mean natural remanent magnetization (NRM) intensity (1.54 ± 2.6 A/m) and Koenigsberger ratio (8.05 ± 15.2) for these samples suggest that lower crustal gabbros are a significant contributor to marine magnetic anomalies. However, dual magnetic polarities were recorded at all four sites, with apparent polarity reversals sometimes occurring over spatial scales of tens of cen- timeters. Detailed demagnetization and rock magnetic studies of one such interval suggest that the complex remanence, dual polarities, and the occurrence of spurious well-defined magnetization components are related to production of magnetite during high-temperature alteration and/or cooling in periods of opposite polarity. These complexities, if generally applicable to oce- anic gabbros, may reduce the integrated contribution from the gabbroic layer to marine magnetic anomalies.

1994
Kent, DV, Gee J.  1994.  Grain Size-Dependent Alteration and the Magnetization of Oceanic Basalts. Science. 265:1561-1563.   10.1126/science.265.5178.1561   AbstractWebsite

Unblocking temperatures of natural remanent magnetization were found to extend well above the dominant Curie points in samples of oceanic basalts from the axis of the East Pacific Rise. This phenomenon is attributed to the natural presence in the basalts of three related magnetic phases: an abundant fine-grained and preferentially oxidized titanomagnetite that carries most of the natural remanent magnetism, a few coarser and less oxidized grains of titanomagnetite that account for most of the high-field magnetic properties, and a small contribution to both the natural remanent magnetism and high-field magnetic properties from magnetite that may be due to the disproportionation of the oxidized titanomagnetite under sea-floor conditions. This model is consistent with evidence from the Central Anomaly magnetic high that the original magnetization acquired by oceanic basalts upon cooling is rapidly altered and accounts for the lack of sensitivity of bulk rock magnetic parameters to the degree of alteration of the remanence carrier in oceanic basalts.

Gee, J, Kent DV.  1994.  Variations in Layer 2A Thickness and the Origin of the Central Anomaly Magnetic High. Geophysical Research Letters. 21:297-300.   10.1029/93gl03422   AbstractWebsite

The seismically determined off-axis thickening of the extrusive layer is apparently at odds with the magnetic anomaly high typically associated with the ridge crest. The positive magnetization contrast at the ridge crest is most likely caused by rapid alteration of the extrusive source layer which occurs over spatial scales (2-3 km) comparable to that of the proposed Layer 2A thickening. We present magnetic remanence data from basalts dredged on and near the East Pacific Rise axis at 12-degrees-N which are compatible with a rapid magnetization reduction (approximately 20 k.y. to decay to 1/e). Together with near bottom magnetic profiles from the ultra-fast-spreading East Pacific Rise at 19.5-degrees-S, these data suggest that previous estimates of the time constant of alteration inferred from slow-spreading ridges (0.5 m.y.) may be more than an order of magnitude too high.