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Gee, JS, Meurer WP, Selkin PA, Cheadle MJ.  2004.  Quantifying three-dimensional silicate fabrics in cumulates using cumulative distribution functions. Journal of Petrology. 45:1983-2009.   10.1093/petrology/egh045   AbstractWebsite

We present a new method for quantifying three-dimensional silicate fabrics and the associated uncertainties from grain orientation data on three orthogonal sections. Our technique is applied to the orientation of crystallographic features and, hence, yields a fabric related to the lattice-preferred orientation, although the method could be applied to shape-preferred orientations or strain analysis based on passive linear markers. The orientation data for each section are represented by their cumulative distribution function, and an iterative procedure is used to find the symmetric second-rank strain tensor that will simultaneously satisfy the cumulative distribution functions observed on each section. For samples with well-developed fabrics, this technique provides a much closer match to the sectional data than do previous techniques based on eigenparameter analysis of two-dimensional orientation data. Robust uncertainty estimates are derived from a non-parametric bootstrap resampling scheme. The method is applied to two cumulates: one with a well-developed fabric and the other with a weak fabric, from the Stillwater complex, Montana. The silicate petrofabric orientations obtained for these samples compare favorably with independent direct estimates of the volume fabric from electron backscatter diffraction and magnetic techniques.

Selkin, PA, Gee JS, Meurer WP, Hemming SR.  2008.  Paleointensity record from the 2.7 Ga Stillwater Complex, Montana. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems. 9   10.1029/2008gc001950   AbstractWebsite

The record of geomagnetic intensity captured in the 2.7 Ga Stillwater Complex (Montana, USA) provides a statistical description of the Archean geodynamo. We present results of modified Thellier paleointensity experiments on 441 core specimens, 114 of which pass strict reliability criteria. The specimens are from 53 sites spanning most of the Banded Series rocks in the Stillwater Complex. On the basis of thermochronologic and petrologic evidence, we interpret the highest temperature component of remanence to be a late Archean thermoremanence, though the possibility remains that it is a thermochemical remanence. Thermal models indicate that the highest temperature magnetization component at each of the sites averages similar to 20-200 ka of geomagnetic secular variation. The suite of sites as distributed through the Banded Series samples a roughly a 1 Ma time interval. The average of the most reliable paleointensity measurements, uncorrected for the effects of anisotropy or cooling rate, is 38.2 +/- 11.3 mu T (1 sigma). Remanence anisotropy, cooling rate, and the nonlinear relationship between applied field and thermoremanence have a significant effect on paleointensity results; a corrected average of 30.6 +/- 8.8 mu T is likely a more appropriate value. Earth's average dipole moment during the late Archean (5.05 +/- 1.46 x 10(22) Am(2), lambda(pmag) = 44.5 degrees) was well within the range of estimates from Phanerozoic rocks. The distribution of site-mean paleointensities around the mean is consistent with that expected from slow cooling over timescales expected from thermal models and with secular variation comparable to that of the Phanerozoic field.