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Morris, A, Gee JS, Pressling N, John BE, MacLeod CJ, Grimes CB, Searle RC.  2009.  Footwall rotation in an oceanic core complex quantified using reoriented Integrated Ocean Drilling Program core samples. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 287:217-228.   10.1016/j.epsl.2009.08.007   AbstractWebsite

Oceanic core complexes expose lower crustal and upper mantle rocks on the seafloor by tectonic unroofing in the footwalls of large-slip detachment faults. The common occurrence of these structures in slow and ultra-slow spread oceanic crust suggests that they accommodate a significant component of plate divergence. However, the subsurface geometry of detachment faults in oceanic core complexes remains unclear. Competing models involve either: (a) displacement on planar, low-angle faults with little tectonic rotation; or (b) progressive shallowing by rotation of initially steeply dipping faults as a result of flexural unloading (the "rolling-hinge" model). We address this debate using palaeomagnetic remanences as markers for tectonic rotation within a unique 1.4 km long footwall section of gabbroic rocks recovered by Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) sampling at Atlantis Massif oceanic core complex on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR). These rocks contain a complex record of multipolarity magnetizations that are unrelated to alteration and igneous stratigraphy in the sampled section and are inferred to result from progressive cooling of the footwall section over geomagnetic polarity chrons C1r.2r, C1r.1n (Jaramillo) and C1r.1r. For the first time we have independently reoriented drill-core samples of lower crustal gabbros, that were initially azimuthally unconstrained, to a true geographic reference frame by correlating structures in individual core pieces with those identified from oriented imagery of the borehole wall. This allows reorientation of the palaeomagnetic data, placing far more rigorous constraints on the tectonic history than those possible using only palaeomagnetic inclination data. Analysis of the reoriented high temperature reversed component of magnetization indicates a 46 degrees +/- 6 degrees anticlockwise rotation of the footwall around a MAR-parallel horizontal axis trending 011 degrees +/- 6 degrees. Reoriented lower temperature components of normal and reversed polarity suggest that much of this rotation occurred after the end of the Jaramillo chron (0.99 Ma). The data provide unequivocal confirmation of the key prediction of flexural, rolling-hinge models for oceanic core complexes, whereby oceanic detachment faults initiate at higher dips and rotate to their present day low-angle geometries as displacement increases. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Mitra, R, Tauxe L, Gee JS.  2011.  Detecting uniaxial single domain grains with a modified IRM technique. Geophysical Journal International. 187:1250-1258.   10.1111/j.1365-246X.2011.05224.x   AbstractWebsite

Mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) specimens have often been found to have high ratios of saturation remanence to saturation magnetization (M(rs)/M(s)). This has been attributed either to dominant cubic anisotropy or to insufficient saturating field leading to overestimation of M(rs)/M(s) of a dominantly uniaxial single domain (USD) assemblage. To resolve this debate, we develop an independent technique to detect USD assemblages. The experimental protocol involves subjecting the specimen to bidirectional impulse fields at each step. The experiment is similar to the conventional isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) acquisition experiment but the field is applied twice, in antiparallel directions. We define a new parameter, IRAT, as the ratio of the remanences at each field step and show it to have characteristic behaviour for the two assemblages; IRAT similar to 1 at all field steps for USD and <1 with a strong field dependence for multi-axial single domain (MSD) grains. We verified the theoretical predictions experimentally with representative USD and MSD specimens. Experiments with MORBs gave low IRATs for specimens having high M(rs)/M(s). This argues for a dominant MSD assemblage in the MORBs, possibly cubic in nature. Although undersaturation of the samples can indeed be a contributing factor to the exceptionally high M(rs)/M(s), this study shows that the nature of the assemblage cannot be dominantly USD.

Meurer, WP, Gee J.  2002.  Evidence for the protracted construction of slow-spread oceanic crust by small magmatic injections. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 201:45-55.   10.1016/s0012-821x(02)00660-x   AbstractWebsite

Gabbroic cumulates drilled south of the Kane Transform Fault on the slow-spread Mid-Atlantic Ridge preserve up to three discrete magnetization components. Here we use absolute age constraints derived from the paleomagnetic data to develop a model for the magmatic construction of this section of the lower oceanic crust. By comparing the paleomagnetic data with mineral compositions, and based on thermal models of local reheating, we infer that magmas that began crystallizing in the upper mantle intruded into the lower oceanic crust and formed meter-scale sills. Some of these magmas were crystal-laden and the subsequent expulsion of interstitial liquid from them produced 'cumulus' sills. These small-scale magmatic injections took place over at least 210 000 years and at distances of similar to3 km from the ridge axis and may have formed much of the lower crust. This model explains many of the complexities described in this area and can be used to help understand the general formation of oceanic crust at slow-spread ridges. (C) 2002 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

Marcuson, R, Gee J, Wei E, Driscoll N.  2019.  A 2000 year geomagnetic field record from the Gulf of Papua. Marine Geology. 408:48-66.   10.1016/j.margeo.2018.11.014   AbstractWebsite

A high resolution Holocene record of geomagnetic field direction and intensity in the Gulf of Papua was constructed using paleomagnetic data from eight piston cores collected in the region. The chronology of the cores was based largely on radiocarbon dates from benthic foraminifera. Correlation of seismic reflectors imaged in subbottom data between nearby cores was consistent with the chronostratigraphic framework based on radiocarbon dates and provided additional confidence of the age model. In other regions, where cores sampled different depositional settings associated with the three-dimensional prograding lobes, reflectors could not be confidently correlated between cores. Furthermore, radiocarbon ages from the bottoms of trigger cores and tops of co-located piston cores revealed varying amounts of overpenetration of the piston core below the seafloor. The relative paleointensity, and a general eastward trend in the declination and steepening of the inclination in our new record are generally compatible with the closest ( > 4300 km) existing records. Our record does not agree well with global field models CALS3k and pfm9k, likely reflecting the lack of existing data contributing to field models in the region.