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Friedman, R, Gee J, Tauxe L, Downing K, Lindsay E.  1992.  The Magnetostratigraphy of the Chitarwata and Lower Vihowa Formations of the Dera-Ghazi-Khan Area, Pakistan. Sedimentary Geology. 81:253-268.   10.1016/0037-0738(92)90074-2   AbstractWebsite

Three sections of the Chitarwata and lower Vihowa formations were sampled along the Dalana River on the southeastern flank of the Zinda Pir Dome in the southern Sulaiman Range near Dera Ghazi Khan, Pakistan. Together they provide nearly 800 m of a continuous sedimentary record of the Miocene derived from the uplifted Himalayan highlands. Previous studies have examined the Middle and Upper Miocene sediments, the Siwalik Group, of the Potwar Plateau to the north. However, detailed investigations of earlier periods are impossible in that area due to the absence of Oligocene and Lower Miocene sediments caused by continued overthrusting associated with the Himalayan orogeny. Fortunately, the Sulaiman basin to the south, which was further removed from the tectonic activity, provides a record of the Early Miocene in the form of the Chitarwata Formation. The Dalana A, B, and C sections (DGA, DGB, and DGC) were examined and sampled for this study. A magnetostratigraphic analysis was carried out to correlate and date the Chitarwata and Vihowa formations exposed in this area. The samples were subjected to step-wise demagnetization to resolve the primary and secondary remanent magnetization components. Thermal demagnetization trajectories indicate that the majority of samples have sufficient internal consistency that their calculated polarities are reliable. Likewise, the majority of the 126 measured sites showed statistically significant agreement between the three measured samples per site. However, the bimodal data set does not pass the reversal test and so is deemed unsuitable for tectonic interpretations. The individual sections were initially correlated using lithologic and stratigraphic methods, and the relationship was reinforced by the magnetostratigraphy. The composite DG section was tentatively correlated with the standard magnetic polarity time scale placing the disconformable base of the Chitarwata in the DGA section at just older than 22 Ma, the Chitarwata/Vihowa contact at 18.6 Ma, and the top of the Vihowa in the DGC section at about 16 Ma. The assignment of these dates to the Chitarwata will aid in future biostratigraphic and lithostratigraphic correlation of Early Miocene sediments, effectively extending the well-established Siwalik faunal sequence back by four million years.