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Blackman, DK, Ildefonse B, John BE, Ohara Y, Miller DJ, Abe N, Abratis M, Andal ES, Andreani M, Awaji S, Beard JS, Brunelli D, Charney AB, Christie DM, Collins J, Delacour AG, Delius H, Drouin M, Einaudi F, Escartin J, Frost BR, Fruh-Green G, Fryer PB, Gee JS, Godard M, Grimes CB, Halfpenny A, Hansen HE, Harris AC, Tamura A, Hayman NW, Hellebrand E, Hirose T, Hirth JG, Ishimaru S, Johnson KTM, Karner GD, Linek M, MacLeod CJ, Maeda J, Mason OU, McCaig AM, Michibayashi K, Morris A, Nakagawa T, Nozaka T, Rosner M, Searle RC, Suhr G, Tominaga M, von der Handt A, Yamasaki T, Zhao X.  2011.  Drilling constraints on lithospheric accretion and evolution at Atlantis Massif, Mid-Atlantic Ridge 30 degrees N. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth. 116   10.1029/2010jb007931   AbstractWebsite

Expeditions 304 and 305 of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program cored and logged a 1.4 km section of the domal core of Atlantis Massif. Postdrilling research results summarized here constrain the structure and lithology of the Central Dome of this oceanic core complex. The dominantly gabbroic sequence recovered contrasts with predrilling predictions; application of the ground truth in subsequent geophysical processing has produced self-consistent models for the Central Dome. The presence of many thin interfingered petrologic units indicates that the intrusions forming the domal core were emplaced over a minimum of 100-220 kyr, and not as a single magma pulse. Isotopic and mineralogical alteration is intense in the upper 100 m but decreases in intensity with depth. Below 800 m, alteration is restricted to narrow zones surrounding faults, veins, igneous contacts, and to an interval of locally intense serpentinization in olivine-rich troctolite. Hydration of the lithosphere occurred over the complete range of temperature conditions from granulite to zeolite facies, but was predominantly in the amphibolite and greenschist range. Deformation of the sequence was remarkably localized, despite paleomagnetic indications that the dome has undergone at least 45 degrees rotation, presumably during unroofing via detachment faulting. Both the deformation pattern and the lithology contrast with what is known from seafloor studies on the adjacent Southern Ridge of the massif. There, the detachment capping the domal core deformed a 100 m thick zone and serpentinized peridotite comprises similar to 70% of recovered samples. We develop a working model of the evolution of Atlantis Massif over the past 2 Myr, outlining several stages that could explain the observed similarities and differences between the Central Dome and the Southern Ridge.

Blackman, DK, Karson JA, Kelley DS, Cann JR, Fruh-Green GL, Gee JS, Hurst SD, John BE, Morgan J, Nooner SL, Ross DK, Schroeder TJ, Williams EA.  2002.  Geology of the Atlantis Massif (Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 30 degrees N): Implications for the evolution of an ultramafic oceanic core complex. Marine Geophysical Research. 23:443-469.   10.1023/b:mari.0000018232.14085.75   AbstractWebsite

The oceanic core complex comprising Atlantis Massif was formed within the past 1.5-2 Myr at the intersection of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 30degrees N, and the Atlantis Transform Fault. The corrugated, striated central dome prominently displays morphologic and geophysical characteristics representative of an ultramafic core complex exposed via long-lived detachment faulting. Sparse volcanic features on the massif's central dome indicate that minor volcanics have penetrated the inferred footwall, which geophysical data indicates is composed predominantly of variably serpentinized peridotite. In contrast, the hanging wall to the east of the central dome is comprised of volcanic rock. The southern part of the massif has experienced the greatest uplift, shoaling to less than 700 m below sea level, and the coarsely striated surface there extends eastward to the top of the median valley wall. Steep landslide embayments along the south face of the massif expose cross sections through the core complex. Almost all of the submersible and dredge samples from this area are deformed, altered peridotite and lesser gabbro. Intense serpentinization within the south wall has likely contributed to the uplift of the southern ridge and promoted the development of the Lost City Hydrothermal Field near the summit. Differences in the distribution with depth of brittle deformation observed in microstructural analyses of outcrop samples suggest that low-temperature strain, such as would be associated with a major detachment fault, is concentrated within several tens of meters of the domal surface. However, submersible and camera imagery show that deformation is widespread along the southern face of the massif, indicating that a series of faults, rather than a single detachment, accommodated the uplift and evolution of this oceanic core complex.

Bowers, NE, Cande SC, Gee JS, Hildebrand JA, Parker RL.  2001.  Fluctuations of the paleomagnetic field during chron C5 as recorded in near-bottom marine magnetic anomaly data. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth. 106:26379-26396.   10.1029/2001jb000278   AbstractWebsite

Near-bottom magnetic data contain information on paleomagnetic field fluctuations during chron C5 as observed in both the North and South Pacific. The North Pacific data include 12 survey lines collected with a spatial separation of up to 120 kin, and the South Pacific data consist of a single long line collected on the west flank of the East Pacific Rise (EPR) at 19 degreesS. The North Pacific magnetic profiles reveal a pattern of linear, short-wavelength (2 to 5 km) anomalies (tiny wiggles) that are highly correlated over the shortest (3.8 km) to longest (120 km) separations in the survey. Magnetic inversions incorporating basement topography show that these anomalies are not caused by the small topographic relief. The character of the near-bottom magnetic profile from anomaly 5 on the west flank of the EPR, formed at a spreading rate more than twice that of the North Pacific, displays a remark-able similarity to the individual and stacked lines from the North Pacific survey area, Over distances corresponding to 1 m.y., 19 lows in the magnetic anomaly profile can be correlated between the North and South Pacific lines. Modeling the lows as due to short polarity events suggests that they may be caused by rapid swings of the magnetic field between normal and reversed polarities with little or no time in the reversed state. Owing to the implausibly high number of reversals required to account for these anomalies and the lack of any time in the reversed state, we conclude that the near-bottom signal is primarily a record of pateointensity fluctuations during chron C5. Spectral analysis of the North Pacific near bottom lines shows that the signal is equivalent to a paleointensity curve with a temporal resolution of 40 to 60 kyr, while measurements of the smallest separations of correlatable dips in the field suggest a temporal resolution of 36 kyr.

Bowles, JA, Jackson MJ, Berquo TS, Solheid PA, Gee JS.  2013.  Inferred time- and temperature-dependent cation ordering in natural titanomagnetites. Nature Communications. 4   10.1038/ncomms2938   AbstractWebsite

Despite years of efforts to quantify cation distribution as a function of composition in the magnetite-ulvo "spinel solid solution, important uncertainties remain about the dependence of cation ordering on temperature and cooling rate. Here we demonstrate that Curie temperature in a set of natural titanomagnetites (with some Mg and Al substitution) is strongly influenced by prior thermal history at temperatures just above or below Curie temperature. Annealing for 10(-1) to 10(3) h at 350-400 degrees C produces large and reversible changes in Curie temperature (up to 150 degrees C). By ruling out oxidation/reduction and compositional unmixing, we infer that the variation in Curie temperature arises from cation reordering, and Mossbauer spectroscopy supports this interpretation. Curie temperature is therefore an inaccurate proxy for composition in many natural titanomagnetites, but the cation reordering process may provide a means of constraining thermal histories of titanomagnetite-bearing rocks. Further, our theoretical understanding of thermoremanence requires fundamental revision when Curie temperature is itself a function of thermal history.

Bowles, J, Tauxe L, Gee J, McMillan D, Cande S.  2003.  Source of tiny wiggles in Chron C5: A comparison of sedimentary relative intensity and marine magnetic anomalies. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems. 4   10.1029/2002gc000489   AbstractWebsite

[1] In addition to the well-established pattern of polarity reversals, short-wavelength fluctuations are often present in both sea-surface data ("tiny wiggles'') and near-bottom anomaly data. While a high degree of correlation between different geographical regions suggests a geomagnetic origin for some of these wiggles, anomaly data alone cannot uniquely determine whether they represent short reversals or paleointensity variations. Independent evidence from another geomagnetic recording medium such as deep-sea sediments is required to determine the true nature of the tiny wiggles. We present such independent evidence in the form of sedimentary relative paleointensity from Chron C5. We make the first comparison between a sedimentary relative paleointensity record (ODP Site 887 at 54degreesN, 148degreesW) and deep-tow marine magnetic anomaly data (43degreesN, 131degreesW) [ Bowers et al., 2001] for Chron C5. The sediment cores are densely sampled at similar to2.5 kyr resolution. The inclination record shows no evidence for reverse intervals within the similar to1 myr-long normal Chron C5n.2n. Rock magnetic measurements suggest that the primary magnetic carrier is pseudo-single domain magnetite. We choose a partial anhysteretic magnetization (pARM) as our preferred normalizer, and the resulting relative paleointensity record is used as input to a forward model of crustal magnetization. We then compare the results of this model with the stacked deep-tow anomaly records. The two records show a significant degree of correlation, suggesting that the tiny wiggles in the marine magnetic anomalies are likely produced by paleointensity variations. An analysis of our sampling density suggests that if any reverse intervals exist at this site, they are likely to be <5 kyr in duration. Furthermore, we suggest that reverse intervals during Chron C5n.2n documented in other locations are unlikely to be global.

Bowles, JA, Gee JS, Jackson MJ, Avery MS.  2015.  Geomagnetic paleointensity in historical pyroclastic density currents: Testing the effects of emplacement temperature and postemplacement alteration. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems. 16:3607-3625.   10.1002/2015gc005910   AbstractWebsite

Thellier-type paleointensity experiments were conducted on welded ash matrix or pumice from the 1912 Novarupta (NV) and 1980 Mt. St. Helens (MSH) pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) with the intention of evaluating their suitability for geomagnetic paleointensity studies. PDCs are common worldwide, but can have complicated thermal and alteration histories. We attempt to address the role that emplacement temperature and postemplacement hydrothermal alteration may play in nonideal paleointensity behavior of PDCs. Results demonstrate two types of nonideal behavior: unstable remanence in multidomain (MD) titanomagnetite, and nonideal behavior linked to fumarolic and vapor phase alteration. Emplacement temperature indirectly influences MSH results by controlling the fraction of homogenous MD versus oxyexsolved pseudo-single domain titanomagnetite. NV samples are more directly influenced by vapor phase alteration. The majority of NV samples show distinct two-slope behavior in the natural remanent magnetizationpartial thermal remanent magnetization plots. We interpret this to arise from a (thermo)chemical remanent magnetization associated with vapor phase alteration, and samples with high water content (>0.75% loss on ignition) generate paleointensities that deviate most strongly from the true value. We find that PDCs can be productively used for paleointensity, but thatas with all paleointensity studiescare should be taken in identifying potential postemplacement alteration below the Curie temperature, and that large, welded flows may be more alteration-prone. One advantage in using PDCs is that they typically have greater areal (spatial) exposure than a basalt flow, allowing for more extensive sampling and better assessment of errors and uncertainty.

Bowles, J, Gee JS, Kent DV, Bergmanis E, Sinton J.  2005.  Cooling rate effects on paleointensity estimates in submarine basaltic glass and implications for dating young flows. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems. 6   10.1029/2004gc000900   AbstractWebsite

Cooling rate effects on the intensity of thermoremanent magnetization (TRM) have been well documented in ceramics. In that case, laboratory cooling is generally more rapid than the initial cooling, leading to an overestimate of the paleofield by 5-10% in Thellier-type paleointensity experiments. The reverse scenario, however, has never been tested. We examine the effects of cooling rate on paleointensity estimates from rapidly quenched submarine basaltic glass (SBG) samples from 13 sites at 17 degrees 30'-18 degrees 30'S on the East Pacific Rise. Absolute cooling rates determined by relaxation geospeedometry at five of these sites range from similar to 10 to similar to 330 degrees C min(-1) at the glass transition (similar to 650 degrees C). Over the dominant range of remanence blocking temperatures (similar to 200-400 degrees C), the natural cooling rates are approximately equal to or slightly slower than the laboratory cooling rates during the Thellier experiment. These results suggest that while the cooling rate effect might introduce some within-site scatter, it should not result in a systematic bias in paleointensity from SBG. Paleointensity estimates from the 15 sites range from similar to 29 to 59 mu T, with an average standard error of similar to 1 mu T. Comparison with models of geomagnetic field intensity variations at the site indicate the youngest group of samples is very recent (indistinguishable from present-day) and the oldest is at least 500, and probably several thousand, years old. These age estimates are consistent with available radiometric ages and geologic observations.

Bowles, JA, Gee JS, Burgess K, Cooper RF.  2011.  Timing of magnetite formation in basaltic glass: Insights from synthetic analogs and relevance for geomagnetic paleointensity analyses. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems. 12   10.1029/2010gc003404   AbstractWebsite

Absolute paleointensity estimates from submarine basaltic glass (SBG) typically are of high technical quality and accurately reflect the ambient field when known. SBG contains fine-grained, low-Ti magnetite, in contrast to the high-Ti magnetite in crystalline basalt, which has lead to uncertainty over the origin of the magnetite and its remanence in SBG. Because a thermal remanence is required for accurate paleointensity estimates, the timing and temperature of magnetite formation is crucial. To assess these factors, we generated a suite of synthetic glasses with variable oxygen fugacity, cooling rate, and FeO* content. Magnetic properties varied most strongly with crystallinity; less crystalline specimens are similar to natural SBG and have weaker magnetization, a greater superparamagnetic contribution, and higher unblocking temperatures than more crystalline specimens. Thellier-type paleointensity results recovered the correct field within 1 sigma error with 2 (out of 10) exceptions that likely result from an undetected change in the laboratory field. Unblocking and ordering temperature data demonstrate that low-Ti magnetite is a primary phase, formed when the glass initially quenched. Although prolonged heating at high temperatures (during paleointensity experiments) may result in minor alteration at temperatures <580 degrees C, this does not appear to impact the accuracy of the paleointensity estimate. Young SBG is therefore a suitable material for paleointensity studies.

Bowles, J, Gee JS, Kent DV, Perfit MR, Soule SA, Fornari DJ.  2006.  Paleointensity applications to timing and extent of eruptive activity, 9 degrees-10 degrees N East Pacific Rise. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems. 7   10.1029/2005gc001141   AbstractWebsite

[ 1] Placing accurate age constraints on near-axis lava flows has become increasingly important given the structural and volcanic complexity of the neovolcanic zone at fast spreading ridges. Geomagnetic paleointensity of submarine basaltic glass (SBG) holds promise for placing quantitative age constraints on near-axis flows. In one of the first extensive tests of paleointensity as a dating tool or temporal marker we present the results of over 550 successful SBG paleointensity estimates from 189 near-axis (< 4 km) sites at the East Pacific Rise, 9 degrees - 10 degrees N. Paleointensities range from 6 to 53 mu T and spatially correspond to the pattern expected from known temporal variations in the geomagnetic field. Samples within and adjacent to the axial summit trough (AST) have values approximately equal to or slightly higher than the present-day. Samples out to 1 - 3 km from the AST have values higher than the present-day, and samples farther off axis have values lower than the present-day. The on-axis samples (< 500 m from the AST) provide a test case for using models of paleofield variation for the past few hundred years as an absolute dating technique. Results from samples collected near a well-documented eruption in 1991 - 1992 suggest there may be a small negative bias in the paleointensity estimates, limiting resolution of the dating technique. Possible explanations for such a bias include local field anomalies produced by preexisting magnetic terrain; anomalously high magnetic unblocking temperatures, leading to a small cooling rate bias; and/or the possibility of a chemical remanence produced by in situ alteration of samples likely to have complicated thermal histories. Paleointensity remains useful in approximating age differences in young flows, and a clear along-axis paleointensity contrast near 9 degrees 50'N is suggestive of a similar to 150 - 200 year age difference. Paleointensity values of off-axis samples are generally consistent with rough age interpretations based on side scan data. Furthermore, spatial patterns in the paleointensity suggest extensive off-axis flow emplacement may occur infrequently, with recurrence intervals of 10 - 20 kyr. Results of a stochastic model of lava emplacement show that this can be achieved with a single distribution of flows, with flow size linked to time between eruptions.

Bowles, J, Gee J, Hildebrand J, Tauxe L.  2002.  Archaeomagnetic intensity results from California and Ecuador: evaluation of regional data. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 203:967-981.   10.1016/s0012-821x(02)00927-5   AbstractWebsite

We present new archaeointensity data for southeastern California (similar to33degreesN, similar to115degreesW, 50-1500 yr BP) and northwestern South America (Ecuador, 2.4degreesS, 80.7degreesW, 4000-5000 yr BP). These results represent the only data from California, as well as the oldest archaeointensity data now available in northwestern South America. In comparing our results to previously published data for the southwestern United States and northwestern South America, we note that significant scatter in the existing data makes comparisons and interpretations difficult. We undertake an analysis of the sources of data scatter (including age uncertainty, experimental errors, cooling rate differences, magnetic anisotropy, and field distortion) and evaluate the effects of scatter and error on the smoothed archaeointensity record. By making corrections where possible and eliminating questionable data, scatter is significantly reduced, especially in South America, but is far from eliminated. However, we believe the long-period fluctuations in intensity can be resolved, and differences between the Southwestern and South American records can be identified. The Southwest data are distinguished from the South American data by much higher virtual axial dipole moment values from similar to 0-600 yr BP and by a broad low between similar to 1000-1500 yr BP. Comparisons to global paleofield models reveal disagreements between the models and the archaeointensity data in these two regions, underscoring the need for additional intensity data to constrain the models in much of the world. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Burgess, K, Cooper RF, Bowles JA, Gee JS, Cherniak DJ.  2010.  Effects of open and closed system oxidation on texture and magnetic response of remelted basaltic glass. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems. 11   10.1029/2010gc003248   AbstractWebsite

As part of an experimental and observational study of the magnetic response of submarine basaltic glass (SBG), we have examined, using ion backscattering spectrometry (RBS), transmission and scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, and surface X-ray diffraction, the textures wrought by the controlled, open and closed system oxidation of glasses prepared by the controlled environment remelting and quenching of natural SBG. Initial compositions with similar to 9 wt % FeO* were melted at 1430 degrees C with the oxygen fugacity buffered at fayalite-magnetite-quartz; melts were cooled at a rate of 200 degrees C min(-1) near the glass transition (T(g) = 680 degrees C). In open system experiments, where chemical exchange is allowed to occur with the surrounding atmosphere, polished pieces of glass were reheated to temperatures both below and above T(g) for times 1-5000 h; undercooled melts were oxidized at 900 degrees C and 1200 degrees C for 18 and 20 h, respectively. RBS demonstrates unequivocally that the dynamics of open system oxidation involves the outward motion of network-modifying cations. Oxidation results in formation of a Fe-, Ca-, and Mg-enriched surface layer that consists in part of Ti-free nanometer-scale ferrites; a divalentcation- depleted layer is observed at depths >1 mu m. Specimens annealed/oxidized above T(g) have magnetizations elevated by 1-2 orders of magnitude relative to the as-quenched material; this does not appear to be related to the surface oxidation. Quenched glass (closed system, i.e., no chemical exchange between sample and atmosphere) exhibits very fine scale chemical heterogeneities that coarsen with time under an electron beam; this metastable amorphous immiscibility is the potential source for the nucleation of ferrites with a wide range of Ti contents, ferrites not anticipated from an equilibrium analysis of the bulk basalt composition.