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Orsi, AJ, Cornuelle BD, Severinghaus JP.  2012.  Little Ice Age cold interval in West Antarctica: Evidence from borehole temperature at the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) Divide. Geophysical Research Letters. 39   10.1029/2012gl051260   AbstractWebsite

The largest climate anomaly of the last 1000 years in the Northern Hemisphere was the Little Ice Age (LIA) from 1400-1850 C. E., but little is known about the signature of this event in the Southern Hemisphere, especially in Antarctica. We present temperature data from a 300 m borehole at the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) Divide. Results show that WAIS Divide was colder than the last 1000-year average from 1300 to 1800 C.E. The temperature in the time period 1400-1800 C.E. was on average 0.52 +/- 0.28 degrees C colder than the last 100-year average. This amplitude is about half of that seen at Greenland Summit (GRIP). This result is consistent with the idea that the LIA was a global event, probably caused by a change in solar and volcanic forcing, and was not simply a seesaw-type redistribution of heat between the hemispheres as would be predicted by some ocean-circulation hypotheses. The difference in the magnitude of the LIA between Greenland and West Antarctica suggests that the feedbacks amplifying the radiative forcing may not operate in the same way in both regions. Citation: Orsi, A. J., B. D. Cornuelle, and J. P. Severinghaus (2012), Little Ice Age cold interval in West Antarctica: Evidence from borehole temperature at the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) Divide, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L09710, doi: 10.1029/2012GL051260.

Grachev, AM, Severinghaus JP.  2003.  Laboratory determination of thermal diffusion constants for N-29(2)/N-28(2) in air at temperatures from-60 to 0 degrees C for reconstruction of magnitudes of abrupt climate changes using the ice core fossil-air paleothermometer. Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta. 67:345-360.   10.1016/s0016-7037(02)01115-8   AbstractWebsite

Rapid temperature change causes fractionation of isotopic gaseous species in air in firn (snow) by thermal diffusion, producing a signal that is preserved in trapped air bubbles as the snow forms ice. Using a model of heat penetration and gas diffusion in the firn, as well as the values of appropriate thermal diffusion constants, it is possible to reconstruct the magnitude of a particular paleoclimate change. Isotopic nitrogen in air serves as a convenient tracer for such paleoreconstruction, because the ratio N-29(2)/N-28(2) has stayed extremely constant in the atmosphere for greater than or equal to10(6) years. However, prior to this work no data were available for thermal diffusion of N-29(2)/N-28(2) in air, but only in pure N-2. We devised a laboratory experiment allowing fractionation of gases by thermal diffusion in a small, tightly controlled temperature difference. A mass spectrometer was employed in measuring the resulting fractionations yielding measurement precision greater than was attainable by earlier thermal diffusion investigators. Our laboratory experiments indicate that the value of the thermal diffusion sensitivity (Omega) for N-29(2)/N-28(2) in air is +(14.7 +/- 0.5) X 10(-3) per mil/degreesC when the average temperature is -30.0degreesC. The corresponding value for N-29(2)/N-28(2) in pure N-2 that we find is +(15.3 +/- 0.4) X 10(-3) per mil/degreesC at -30.6degreesC, in agreement with the previously available literature data within their large range of uncertainty. We find that an empirical equation, Omega = (8.656/T-K - 1232/T-K(2)) +/- 3% per mil/degreesC, describes the slight variation of the sensitivity values for N-29(2)/N-28(2) in air with temperature in the range of -60 to 0degreesC. A separate set of experiments also described in this paper rules out adsorption as a candidate for producing additional temperature change-driven fractionation of N-29(2)/N-28(2) in the firn air. The combined newly obtained data constitute a calibration of the fossil-air paleothermometer with respect to isotopic nitrogen and will serve to improve the estimates of the magnitudes of past abrupt climate changes recorded in ice cores. Copyright (C) 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd.