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Severinghaus, JP, Macdonald KC.  1988.  High inside Corners at Ridge-Transform Intersections. Marine Geophysical Researches. 9:353-367.   10.1007/bf00315005   AbstractWebsite

A large topographic high commonly occurs near the intersection of a rifted spreading center and a transform fault. The high occurs at the inside of the 90° bend in the plate boundary, and is called the ‘high inside corner’, while the area across the spreading center, the ‘outside corner’, is often anomalously low. To better understand the origin of this topographic asymmetry, we examine topographic maps of 53 ridge-transform intersections. We conclude the following: (1) High inside corners occur at 41 out of 42 ridge-transform intersections at slow spreading ridges, and thus should be considered characteristic and persistent features of rifted slow spreading ridges. They are conspicuously absent at fast spreading ridges or at spreading centers that lack a rift valley. (2) High inside corners occur wherever an axial rift valley is present, and an approximate 1:1 correlation exists between the relief of the rift valley and the magnitude of the asymmetry. (3) Large high inside corners occur at both long and short transform offsets. (4) High inside corners at long offsets decay off-axis faster than predicted by the square root of age cooling model, precluding a thermalisostatic origin, but consistent with dynamic or flexural uplift models.These observations support the existing hypothesis that the asymmetry is due to the contrast in lithospheric coupling that occurs in the active transform versus the inactive fracture zone. Active faulting in the transform breaks the lithosphere along a high angle fault, permitting vertical movement of the inside corner block, whereas the inactive fracture zone forms a weld that couples the outside corner to the adjacent block, preventing it from rising. Large asymmetry at very short transform offsets appears to be caused by the added effect of a second uplift mechanism. Young lithosphere in the rift valley couples to the older plate, and when it leaves the rift valley it lifts the older plate with it. At very short offsets, this ‘coupled uplift’ acts upon the high inside corner; at long offsets, it may upwarp the older plate or its expression may be muted.

Kobashi, T, Kawamura K, Severinghaus JP, Barnola JM, Nakaegawa T, Vinther BM, Johnsen SJ, Box JE.  2011.  High variability of Greenland surface temperature over the past 4000 years estimated from trapped air in an ice core. Geophysical Research Letters. 38   10.1029/2011gl049444   AbstractWebsite

Greenland recently incurred record high temperatures and ice loss by melting, adding to concerns that anthropogenic warming is impacting the Greenland ice sheet and in turn accelerating global sea-level rise. Yet, it remains imprecisely known for Greenland how much warming is caused by increasing atmospheric greenhouse gases versus natural variability. To address this need, we reconstruct Greenland surface snow temperature variability over the past 4000 years at the GISP2 site (near the Summit of the Greenland ice sheet; hereafter referred to as Greenland temperature) with a new method that utilises argon and nitrogen isotopic ratios from occluded air bubbles. The estimated average Greenland snow temperature over the past 4000 years was -30.7 degrees C with a standard deviation of 1.0 degrees C and exhibited a long-term decrease of roughly 1.5 degrees C, which is consistent with earlier studies. The current decadal average surface temperature (2001-2010) at the GISP2 site is -29.9 degrees C. The record indicates that warmer temperatures were the norm in the earlier part of the past 4000 years, including century-long intervals nearly 1 C warmer than the present decade (20012010). Therefore, we conclude that the current decadal mean temperature in Greenland has not exceeded the envelope of natural variability over the past 4000 years, a period that seems to include part of the Holocene Thermal Maximum. Notwithstanding this conclusion, climate models project that if anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions continue, the Greenland temperature would exceed the natural variability of the past 4000 years sometime before the year 2100. Citation: Kobashi, T., K. Kawamura, J. P. Severinghaus, J.-M. Barnola, T. Nakaegawa, B. M. Vinther, S. J. Johnsen, and J. E. Box (2011), High variability of Greenland surface temperature over the past 4000 years estimated from trapped air in an ice core, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L21501, doi:10.1029/2011GL049444.

Petrenko, VV, Severinghaus JP, Smith AM, Riedel K, Baggenstos D, Harth C, Orsi A, Hua Q, Franz P, Takeshita Y, Brailsford GW, Weiss RF, Buizert C, Dickson A, Schaefer H.  2013.  High-precision C-14 measurements demonstrate production of in situ cosmogenic (CH4)-C-14 and rapid loss of in situ cosmogenic (CO)-C-14 in shallow Greenland firn. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 365:190-197.   10.1016/j.epsl.2013.01.032   AbstractWebsite

Measurements of radiocarbon (C-14) in carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and carbon monoxide (CO) from glacial ice are potentially useful for absolute dating of ice cores, studies of the past atmospheric CH4 budget and for reconstructing the past cosmic ray flux and solar activity. Interpretation of C-14 signals in ice is complicated by the fact that the two major C-14 components-trapped atmospheric and in situ cosmogenic-are present in a combined form, as well as by a very limited understanding of the in situ component. This study measured (CH4)-C-14 and (CO)-C-14 content in glacial firn with unprecedented precision to advance understanding of the in situ C-14 component. (CH4)-C-14 and (CO)-C-14 were melt-extracted on site at Summit, Greenland from three very large (similar to 1000 kg each) replicate samples of firn that spanned a depth range of 3.6-5.6 m. Non-cosmogenic C-14 contributions were carefully characterized through simulated extractions and a suite of supporting measurements. In situ cosmogenic (CO)-C-14 was quantified to better than +/- 0.6 molecules g(-1) ice, improving on the precision of the best prior ice (CO)-C-14 measurements by an order of magnitude. The (CO)-C-14 measurements indicate that most (>99%) of the in situ cosmogenic C-14 is rapidly lost from shallow Summit firn to the atmosphere. Despite this rapid C-14 loss, our measurements successfully quantified (CH4)-C-14 in the retained fraction of cosmogenic C-14 (to +/- 0.01 molecules g(-1) ice or better), and demonstrate for the first time that a significant amount of (CH4)-C-14 is produced by cosmic rays in natural ice. This conclusion increases the confidence in the results of an earlier study that used measurements of (CH4)-C-14 in glacial ice to show that wetlands were the likely main driver of the large and rapid atmospheric CH4 increase approximately 1 1.6 kyr ago. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Taylor, KC, Mayewski PA, Alley RB, Brook EJ, Gow AJ, Grootes PM, Meese DA, Saltzman ES, Severinghaus JP, Twickler MS, White JWC, Whitlow S, Zielinski GA.  1997.  The Holocene Younger Dryas transition recorded at Summit, Greenland. Science. 278:825-827.   10.1126/science.278.5339.825   AbstractWebsite

Analysis of ice from Dye-3, Greenland, has demonstrated that the transition between the Younger Dryas and Holocene climate periods occurred over a 40-year period. A near annually resolved, multiparameter record of the transition recorded in the GISP2 core from Summit, Greenland, shows that most of the transition occurred in a series of steps with durations of about 5 years. Some climate proxies associated with more northern regions. Changes in atmospheric water vapor are likely to have played a large role in the climate transition.

Baggenstos, D, Severinghaus JP, Mulvaney R, McConnell JR, Sigl M, Maselli O, Petit JR, Grente B, Steig EJ.  2018.  A horizontal ice core from Taylor Glacier, its implications for Antarctic climate history, and an improved Taylor Dome ice core time scale. Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology. 33:778-794.   10.1029/2017pa003297   AbstractWebsite

Ice core records from Antarctica show mostly synchronous temperature variations during the last deglacial transition, an indication that the climate of the entire continent reacted as one unit to the global changes. However, a record from the Taylor Dome ice core in the Ross Sea sector of East Antarctica has been suggested to show a rapid warming, similar in style and synchronous with the Oldest Dryas-Bolling warming in Greenland. Since publication of the Taylor Dome record, a number of lines of evidence have suggested that this interpretation is incorrect and reflects errors in the underlying time scale. The issues raised regarding the dating of Taylor Dome currently linger unresolved, and the original time scale remains the de facto chronology. We present new water isotope and chemistry data from nearby Taylor Glacier to resolve the confusion surrounding the Taylor Dome time scale. We find that the Taylor Glacier record is incompatible with the original interpretation of the Taylor Dome ice core, showing that the warming in the area was gradual and started at similar to 18 ka BP (before 1950) as seen in other East Antarctic ice cores. We build a consistent, up-to-date Taylor Dome chronology from 0 to 60 ka BP by combining new and old age markers based on synchronization to other ice core records. The most notable feature of the new TD2015 time scale is a gas age-ice age difference of up to 12,000 years during the Last Glacial Maximum, by far the largest ever observed.