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Bereiter, B, Shackleton S, Baggenstos D, Kawamura K, Severinghaus J.  2018.  Mean global ocean temperatures during the last glacial transition. Nature. 553:39-+.   10.1038/nature25152   AbstractWebsite

Little is known about the ocean temperature's long-term response to climate perturbations owing to limited observations and a lack of robust reconstructions. Although most of the anthropogenic heat added to the climate system has been taken up by the ocean up until now, its role in a century and beyond is uncertain. Here, using noble gases trapped in ice cores, we show that the mean global ocean temperature increased by 2.57 +/- 0.24 degrees Celsius over the last glacial transition (20,000 to 10,000 years ago). Our reconstruction provides unprecedented precision and temporal resolution for the integrated global ocean, in contrast to the depth-, region-, organism-and season-specific estimates provided by other methods. We find that the mean global ocean temperature is closely correlated with Antarctic temperature and has no lead or lag with atmospheric CO2, thereby confirming the important role of Southern Hemisphere climate in global climate trends. We also reveal an enigmatic 700-year warming during the early Younger Dryas period (about 12,000 years ago) that surpasses estimates of modern ocean heat uptake.

Orsi, AJ, Kawamura K, Fegyveresi JM, Headly MA, Alley RB, Severinghaus JP.  2015.  Differentiating bubble-free layers from melt layers in ice cores using noble gases. Journal of Glaciology. 61:585-594.   10.3189/2015JoG14J237   AbstractWebsite

Melt layers are clear indicators of extreme summer warmth on polar ice caps. The visual identification of refrozen meltwater as clear bubble-free layers cannot be used to study some past warm periods, because, in deeper ice, bubbles are lost to clathrate formation. We present here a reliable method to detect melt events, based on the analysis of Kr/Ar and Xe/Ar ratios in ice cores, and apply it to the detection of melt in clathrate ice from the Eemian at NEEM, Greenland. Additionally, melt layers in ice cores can compromise the integrity of the gas record by dissolving soluble gases, or by altering gas transport in the firn, which affects the gas chronology. We find that the easily visible 1 mm thick bubble-free layers in the WAIS Divide ice core do not contain sufficient melt to alter the gas composition in the core, and do not cause artifacts or discontinuities in the gas chronology. The presence of these layers during winter, and the absence of anomalies in soluble gases, suggests that these layers can be formed by processes other than refreezing of meltwater. Consequently, the absence of bubbles in thin crusts is not in itself proof of a melt event.

Petrenko, VV, Severinghaus JP, Brook EJ, Muhle J, Headly M, Harth CM, Schaefer H, Reeh N, Weiss RF, Lowe D, Smith AM.  2008.  A novel method for obtaining very large ancient air samples from ablating glacial ice for analyses of methane radiocarbon. Journal of Glaciology. 54:233-244.   10.3189/002214308784886135   AbstractWebsite

We present techniques for obtaining large (similar to 100 L STP) samples of ancient air for analysis of (14)C of methane ((14)CH(4)) and other trace constituents. Paleoatmospheric (14)CH(4) measurements should constrain the fossil fraction of past methane budgets, as well as provide a definitive test of methane clathrate involvement in large and rapid methane concentration ([CH(4)]) increases that accompanied rapid warming events during the last deglaciation. Air dating to the Younger Dryas-Preboreal and Oldest Dryas-Bolling abrupt climatic transitions was obtained by melt extraction from old glacial ice outcropping at an ablation margin in West Greenland. The outcropping ice and occluded air were dated using a combination of delta(15)N of N(2), delta(18)O of O(2), delta(18)O(ice) and [CH(4)] measurements. The [CH(4)] blank of the melt extractions was <4 ppb. Measurements of delta(18)O and delta(15)N indicated no significant gas isotopic fractionation from handling. Measured Ar/N(2), CFC-11 and CFC-12 in the samples indicated no significant contamination from ambient air. Ar/N(2), Kr/Ar and Xe/Ar ratios in the samples were used to quantify effects of gas dissolution during the melt extractions and correct the sample [CH(4)]. Corrected [CH(4)] is elevated over expected values by up to 132 ppb for most samples, suggesting some in situ CH(4) production in ice at this site.

Headly, MA, Severinghaus JP.  2007.  A method to measure Kr/N-2 ratios in air bubbles trapped in ice cores and its application in reconstructing past mean ocean temperature. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres. 112   10.1029/2006jd008317   AbstractWebsite

We describe a new method for precise measurement of Kr/N-2 ratios in air bubbles trapped in ice cores and the first reconstruction of atmospheric Kr/N-2 during the last glacial maximum (LGM) similar to 20,000 years ago. After gravitational correction, the Kr/N-2 record in ice cores should represent the atmospheric ratio, which in turn should reflect past ocean temperature change due to the dependence of gas solubility on temperature. The increase in krypton inventory in the glacial ocean due to higher gas solubility in colder water causes a decrease in the atmospheric inventory of krypton. Assuming Kr and N-2 inventories in the ocean-atmosphere system are conserved, we use a mass balance model to estimate a mean ocean temperature change between the LGM and today. We measured Kr/N-2 in air bubbles in Greenland (GISP2) ice from the late Holocene and LGM, using the present atmosphere as a standard. The late Holocene delta Kr/N-2 means from two sets of measurements are not different from zero (+0.07 +/- 0.30 parts per thousand and -0.14 +/- 0.93 parts per thousand), as expected from the relatively constant climate of the last millennium. The mean delta Kr/N-2 in air bubbles from the LGM is -1.34 +/- 0.37 parts per thousand. Using the mass balance model, we estimate that the mean temperature change between the LGM ocean and today's ocean was 2.7 +/- 0.6 degrees C. Although this error is large compared to the observed change, this finding is consistent with most previous estimates of LGM deep ocean temperature based on foraminiferal delta O-18 and sediment pore water delta O-18 and chlorinity.