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Phipps Morgan, J, Harding AJ, Orcutt JA, Kent GM, Chen J.  1994.  An observational and theoretical synthesis of the magma chamber geometry and of crustal genesis along a mid-ocean ridge spreading center. Magmatic systems. ( Ryan MP, Ed.)., San Diego: Academic Press Abstract
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Albert, DG, Orcutt JA.  1989.  Observations of Low-Frequency Acoustic-to-Seismic Coupling in the Summer and Winter. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 86:352-359.   10.1121/1.398351   AbstractWebsite

Experiments were conducted at a site in northern Vermont to investigate low‐energy acoustic‐to‐seismic coupling in the 5‐ to 500‐Hz frequency band for propagation distances between 1 and 274 m. Pistol shots were used as the source of the acoustic waves, with geophones and microphones serving as the receivers. The strongest coupling into the ground occurred as the air wave passed, with measured ratios of about 7 and 6×10^−6 m s^−1 Pa^−1 in the summer and winter, respectively. Compressional waves induced in the ground immediately under the source were observed as first arrivals, since they travel at the higher subsurface seismic wave velocity, but their amplitudes were one to two orders of magnitude lower than those of the later‐arriving air wave. A comparison of the summer and winter recordings revealed a number of effects caused by the introduction of a 0.25‐m‐thick snow cover. The peak amplitude of the seismic arrival induced by the passage of the acoustic wave was more strongly attenuated in the winter, with a decay rate proportional to r^−1.9 vs r^−1.2 in the summer. These observed decay rates are shown to agree with the calculated absorption of energy from the airborne acoustic wave by the finite impedance ground surface. The snow cover also produced a strong waveguide effect that enhanced the low‐frequency air‐coupled Rayleigh waves and considerably changed the appearance of the received waveforms.

Berger, J, Laske G, Babcock J, Orcutt J.  2016.  An ocean bottom seismic observatory with near real-time telemetry. Earth and Space Science.   10.1002/2015EA000137   Abstract

We describe a new technology that can provide near real-time telemetry of sensor data from the ocean bottom without a moored buoy or a cable to shore. The breakthrough technology that makes this system possible is an autonomous surface vehicle called a Wave Glider developed by Liquid Robotics, Inc. of Sunnyvale, CA., which harvests wave and solar energy for motive and electrical power. We present results from several deployments of a prototype system that demonstrate the feasibility of this concept. We also demonstrated that a wave glider could tow a suitably designed ocean bottom package with acceptable loss of speed. With further development such a system could be deployed autonomously and provide real-time telemetry of data from seafloor sensors. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Cowles, T, Delaney J, Orcutt J, Weller R.  2010.  The Ocean Observatories Initiative: Sustained Ocean Observing Across a Range of Spatial Scales. Marine Technology Society Journal. 44:54-64. AbstractWebsite

The Ocean Observatory Initiative of the U.S. National Science Foundation is working to advance the ocean sciences by developing the infrastructure for sustained ocean observations at key coastal and open ocean locations. The effort comprises two coastal arrays, four global arrays in the deep ocean, a cabled observatory over the Juan de Fuca tectonic plate, and a sophisticated cyberinfrastructure. The initial installations will be completed by 2015, and 25 years of operation will follow. This article provides an overview of the Ocean Observatory Initiative, followed by more detail about the coastal, regional, and global components. Science drivers are reviewed first. Then, the platforms to be deployed at each site, both moorings and mobile platforms, are described, as are the planned, multidisciplinary core sensors. All data will be freely available.

Orcutt, J.  2003.  The Ocean Research Interactive Observatory Networks (ORION) program. Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union. 84:411-415.   10.1029/2003EO400005   AbstractWebsite

Ships have served oceanographers through the years, ably supporting measurements and sampling using a wide range of disciplines. The use of ships, coupled with the intimate mingling of physics, chemistry geology and biology, have fostered the interdisciplinary growth of oceanography ultimately leading to a major new effort in ocean sciences research. The Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI), a proposed project of the U.S. National Science Foundation, seeks to establish a permanent presence in the ocean to improve our capacity to measure physical, chemical, biological, and geological parameters on multiple time and spatial scales. This NSF Major Research Equipment and Facilities Construction (MRE-FC) project will provide the initial investment in infrastructure necessary for this major new approach in oceanography.

Stephen, RA, Spiess FN, Collins JA, Hildebrand JA, Orcutt JA, Peal KR, Vernon FL, Wooding FB.  2003.  Ocean Seismic Network Pilot Experiment. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems. 4:n/a-n/a.   10.1029/2002GC000485   AbstractWebsite

The primary goal of the Ocean Seismic Network Pilot Experiment (OSNPE) was to learn how to make high quality broadband seismic measurements on the ocean bottom in preparation for a permanent ocean seismic network. The experiment also had implications for the development of a capability for temporary (e.g., 1 year duration) seismic experiments on the ocean floor. Equipment for installing, operating and monitoring borehole observatories in the deep sea was also tested including a lead-in package, a logging probe, a wire line packer and a control vehicle. The control vehicle was used in three modes during the experiment: for observation of seafloor features and equipment, for equipment launch and recovery, and for power supply and telemetry between ocean bottom units and the ship. The OSNPE which was completed in June 1998 acquired almost four months of continuous data and it demonstrated clearly that a combination of shallow buried and borehole broadband sensors could provide comparable quality data to broadband seismic installations on islands and continents. Burial in soft mud appears to be adequate at frequencies below the microseism peak. Although the borehole sensor was subject to installation noise at low frequencies (0.6 to 50 mHz), analysis of the OSNPE data provides new insights into our understanding of ocean bottom ambient noise. The OSNPE results clearly demonstrate the importance of sediment borne shear modes in ocean bottom ambient noise behavior. Ambient noise drops significantly at high frequencies for a sensor placed just at the sediment basalt interface. At frequencies above the microseism peak, there are two reasons that ocean bottom stations have been generally regarded as noisier than island or land stations: ocean bottom stations are closer to the noise source (the surface gravity waves) and most ocean bottom stations to date have been installed on low rigidity sediments where they are subject to the effects of shear wave resonances. When sensors are placed in boreholes in basement the performance of ocean bottom seismic stations approaches that of continental and island stations. A broadband borehole seismic station should be included in any real-time ocean bottom observatory.

Suyehiro, K, Montagner JP, Stephen RA, Araki E, Kanazawa T, Orcutt J, Romanowicz B, Shinohara M.  2006.  Ocean Seismic Observatories. Oceanography. 19:144-149.   10.5670/oceanog.2006.12   Abstract
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Orcutt, JA, Dorman LM.  1977.  Oceanic Long-Range Explosion Experiment - Preliminary-Report. Journal of Geophysics-Zeitschrift Fur Geophysik. 43:257-263. AbstractWebsite
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Canales, JP, Detrick RS, Bazin S, Harding AJ, Orcutt JA.  1998.  Off-axis crustal thickness across and along the East Pacific Rise within the MELT area. Science. 280:1218-1221.   10.1126/science.280.5367.1218   AbstractWebsite

Wide-angle seismic data along the Mantle Electromagnetic and Tomography (MELT) arrays show that the thickness of 0.5- to 1.5-million-year-old crust of the Nazca Plate is not resolvably different from that of the Pacific Plate, despite an asymmetry in depth and gravity across this portion of the East Pacific Rise. Crustal thickness on similarly aged crust on the Nazca plate near a magmatically robust part of the East Pacific Rise at 17 degrees 15'S is slightly thinner (5.1 to 5.7 kilometers) than at the 15 degrees 55'S overlapping spreading center (5.8 to 6.3 kilometers). This small north-south off-axis crustal thickness difference may reflect along-axis temporal variations in magma supply, whereas the across-axis asymmetry in depth and gravity must be caused by density variations in the underlying mantle.

Spudich, PKP, Salisbury MH, Orcutt JA.  1978.  Ophiolites Found in Oceanic-Crust. Geophysical Research Letters. 5:341-344.   10.1029/GL005i005p00341   AbstractWebsite

We have demonstrated that a seismic solution to a set of ocean crustal P and S wave data from the Guadalupe Island area is consistent with measured P and S velocity samples from the Bay of Islands Ophiolite Suite and the observed stratigraphy. The seismic model (SOD-1), derived separately for the P and S wave propagation, contains no major interfaces in velocity between the sea floor and the upper mantle. Although the observations do not prove the Bay of Islands Ophiolite Suite is obducted oceanic crust they do lend considerable support to this hypothesis. These observations also demonstrate that a layered sequence of rock types is not incompatible with velocity models in which the velocity changes smoothly rather than abruptly with depth. A new method for determining lithology as a function of depth, which is based on Vp and Vs, is presented.

Taesombut, N, Uyeda F, Chien AA, Smarr L, DeFanti TA, Papadopoulos P, Leigh J, Ellisman M, Orcutt J.  2006.  The OptIPuter: High-performance, QoS-guaranteed network service for emerging e-science applications. IEEE Communications Magazine. 44:38-45.   10.1109/mcom.2006.1637945   AbstractWebsite

Emerging large-scale scientific applications have a critical need for high bandwidth and predictable-performance network service. The OptIPuter project is pioneering a radical new type of distributed application paradigm that exploits dedicated optical circuits to tightly couple geographically dispersed resources. These private optical paths are set up on demand and combined with end resources to form a distributed virtual computer (DVC). The DVC provides high-quality dedicated network service to applications. In this article we compare the OptIPuter's approach (DVC), which exploits network resources to deliver higher-quality network services, to several alternative service models (intelligent network and asynchronous file transfer). Our simulations show that there are significant differences among the models in their utilization of resources and delivered application services. Key takeaways include that the OptIPuter approach provides applications with superior network service (as needed by emerging e-science applications and performance-critical distributed applications), at an expense in network resource consumption. The other approaches use fewer network resources, but provide lower-quality application service.

Baggeroer, AB, Orcutt JA.  1993.  An overview of the 1991 reconnaissance cruise of the Acoustic Reverberation Special Research Program. Natural physical sources of underwater sound : sea surface sound (2). ( Kerman BR, Ed.).:183-188., Dordrecht; Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers Abstract
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