VLF Propagation Loss to a Buried Seismometer

Sereno, TJ, Farrell WE, Orcutt JA, Adair RG.  1988.  VLF Propagation Loss to a Buried Seismometer. IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering. 13:254-262.

Date Published:



The propagation loss from a shallow underwater explosion to a buried vertically polarized seismometer over the frequency band between 3 and 15 Hz was measured during the 1983 Ngendei Experiment. The data was recorded in 5.5-km-deep water in the southwest Pacific with a triaxial borehole seismograph emplaced 50 m within the basaltic basement. It is found that the average power decays as r-3 (r is slant range) beyond 30 km and that the propagation loss is minimal between 6-9 Hz. At shorter ranges, the propagation loss is more complicated and exhibits a stronger frequency dependence. Power in the first water wave is estimated for both buried and ocean-bottom sensors. The ocean-bottom power is approximately 7 dB higher than that recorded by the buried sensor, and both exhibit similar decay rates.