Project Scientist

Research Interests:

  • AGAGE (Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment)
  • Greenhouse gases
  • Halogenated trace gases
  • Ozone depleting compounds
  • Trace gas measurements (especially GC-FID/ECD/MSD)
  • Global warming
  • Top-down (measurement based) verification of bottom-up emission estimates
  • Atmospheric chemistry
  • Wildfire emissions
  • Long-range transport of pollutants


  • Diploma in Chemistry, University of Wuppertal
  • Doctor of Natural Sciences, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz and Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz

Recent Publications

Li, S, Kim J, Park S, Kim S-K, Park M-K, Muhle J, Lee G, Lee M, Jo CO, Kim K-R.  2014.  Source Identification and Apportionment of Halogenated Compounds Observed at a Remote Site in East Asia. Environmental Science & Technology. 48:491-498.: American Chemical Society   10.1021/es402776w   Abstract

The sources of halogenated compds. in East Asia assocd. with stratospheric ozone depletion and climate change are relatively poorly understood. High-precision in situ measurements of 18 halogenated compds. and carbonyl sulfide (COS) made at Gosan, Jeju Island, Korea, from Nov. 2007 to Dec. 2011 were analyzed by a pos. matrix factorization (PMF). Seven major industrial sources were identified from the enhanced concns. of halogenated compds. obsd. at Gosan and corresponding concn.-based source contributions were also suggested: primary aluminum prodn. explaining 37% of total concn. enhancements, solvent usage of which source apportionment is 25%, fugitive emissions from HCFC/HFC prodn. with 11%, refrigerant replacements (9%), semiconductor/electronics industry (9%), foam blowing agents (6%), and fumigation (3%). Statistical trajectory anal. was applied to specify the potential emission regions for seven sources using back trajectories. Primary aluminum prodn., solvent usage and fugitive emission sources were mainly contributed by China. Semiconductor/electronics sources were dominantly located in Korea. Refrigerant replacement, fumigation and foam blowing agent sources were spread throughout East Asian countries. The specified potential source regions are consistent with country-based consumptions and emission patterns, verifying the PMF anal. results. The industry-based emission sources of halogenated compds. identified in this study help improve our understanding of the East Asian countries' industrial contributions to halogenated compd. emissions. [on SciFinder(R)]

Mahieu, E, Zander R, Toon GC, Vollmer MK, Reimann S, Mühle J, Bader W, Bovy B, Lejeune B, Servais C, Demoulin P, Roland G, Bernath PF, Boone CD, Walker KA, Duchatelet P.  2014.  Spectrometric monitoring of atmospheric carbon tetrafluoride (CF4) above the Jungfraujoch station since 1989: evidence of continued increase but at a slowing rate. Atmos. Meas. Tech.. 7:333-344.: Copernicus Publications   10.5194/amt-7-333-2014   AbstractWebsite
Hall, BD, Engel A, Mühle J, Elkins JW, Artuso F, Atlas E, Aydin M, Blake D, Brunke EG, Chiavarini S, Fraser PJ, Happell J, Krummel PB, Levin I, Loewenstein M, Maione M, Montzka SA, O'Doherty S, Reimann S, Rhoderick G, Saltzman ES, Scheel HE, Steele LP, Vollmer MK, Weiss RF, Worthy D, Yokouchi Y.  2014.  Results from the International Halocarbons in Air Comparison Experiment (IHALACE). Atmos. Meas. Tech.. 7:469-490.: Copernicus Publications   10.5194/amt-7-469-2014   AbstractWebsite
Arnold, T, Ivy DJ, Harth CM, Vollmer MK, Mühle J, Salameh PK, Steele PL, Krummel PB, Wang RHJ, Young D, Lunder CR, Hermansen O, Rhee TS, Kim J, Reimann S, O'Doherty S, Fraser PJ, Simmonds PG, Prinn RG, Weiss RF.  2014.  HFC-43-10mee atmospheric abundances and global emission estimates. Geophysical Research Letters. :2013GL059143.   10.1002/2013gl059143   AbstractWebsite

We report in situ atmospheric measurements of HFC-43-10mee (C5H2F10, 1,1,1,2,2,3,4,5,5,5-decafluoropentane) from seven observatories at various latitudes, together with measurements of archived air samples and recent Antarctic flask air samples. The global mean tropospheric abundance was 0.21 ± 0.05 ppt (parts-per-trillion, dry air mole fraction) in 2012, rising from 0.04 ± 0.03 ppt in 2000. We combine the measurements with a model and inverse method to estimate rising global emissions –– from 0.43 ± 0.34 Gg yr-1 in 2000 to 1.13 ± 0.31 Gg yr-1 in 2012 (~1.9 Tg CO2-eq yr-1 based on a 100-yr global warming potential of 1,660). HFC-43-10mee –– a cleaning solvent used in the electronics industry –– is currently a minor contributor to global radiative forcing relative to total HFCs; however, our calculated emissions highlight a significant difference from the available reported figures and projected estimates.

Fraser, PJ, Dunse BL, Manning AJ, Walsh S, Wang RHJ, Krummel PB, Steele LP, Porter LW, Allison C, O'Doherty S, Simmonds PG, Mühle J, Weiss RF, Prinn RG.  2014.  Australian carbon tetrachloride emissions in a global context. Environmental Chemistry. 11:77-88.   10.1071/EN13171   AbstractWebsite

Global (1978-2012) and Australian (1996-2011) carbon tetrachloride emissions are estimated from atmospheric observations of CCl4 using data from the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) global network, in particular from Cape Grim, Tasmania. Global and Australian emissions are in decline in response to Montreal Protocol restrictions on CCl4 production and consumption for dispersive uses in the developed and developing world. However, atmospheric data-derived emissions are significantly larger than 'bottom-up' estimates from direct and indirect CCl4 production, CCl4 transportation and use. Australian CCl4 emissions are not a result of these sources, and the identification of the origin of Australian emissions may provide a clue to the origin of some of these 'missing' global sources. Journal compilation © CSIRO 2014.

Rigby, M, Prinn RG, O'Doherty S, Miller BR, Ivy D, Mühle J, Harth CM, Salameh PK, Arnold T, Weiss RF, Krummel PB, Steele LP, Fraser PJ, Young D, Simmonds PG.  2014.  Recent and future trends in synthetic greenhouse gas radiative forcing. Geophysical Research Letters. :2013GL059099.   10.1002/2013gl059099   AbstractWebsite

Atmospheric measurements show that emissions of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) are now the primary drivers of the positive growth in synthetic greenhouse gas (SGHG) radiative forcing. We infer recent SGHG emissions and examine the impact of future emissions scenarios, with a particular focus on proposals to reduce HFC use under the Montreal Protocol. If these proposals are implemented, overall SGHG radiative forcing could peak at around 355 mW m-2 in 2020, before declining by approximately 26% by 2050, despite continued growth of fully fluorinated greenhouse gas emissions. Compared to “no HFC policy” projections, this amounts to a reduction in radiative forcing of between 50 and 240 mW m-2 by 2050, or a cumulative emissions saving equivalent to 0.5 to 2.8 years of CO2 emissions at current levels. However, more complete reporting of global HFC emissions is required, as less than half of global emissions are currently accounted for.