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Tait, KT, Day JMD.  2018.  Chondritic late accretion to Mars and the nature of shergottite reservoirs. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 494:99-108.   https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2018.04.040   AbstractFree for 50 days

Mars is considered to have formed as a planetary embryo that experienced extensive differentiation early in its history. Shergottite meteorites preserve evidence for this history, and for late accretion events that affected their mantle sources within Mars. Here we report the first coupled 187Re–187Os, 87Sr/86Sr, highly siderophile element (HSE: Os, Ir, Ru, Pt, Pd, Re) and major element abundance dataset for martian shergottites that span a range of MgO contents, from 6.4 to 30.3 wt.%. The shergottites range from picro-basalt to basaltic-andesite compositions, have enriched to depleted incompatible trace-element compositions, and define fractional crystallization trends, enabling the determination of HSE compatibility for martian magmatism in the order: Os > Ir ≥ Ru ≫ Pt ≥ Pd ≥ Re. This order of compatibility is like that defined previously for Earth and the Moon, but the fractionation of strongly compatible Os, Ir and Ru appears to take place at higher MgO contents in martian magmas, due to early onset of sulfide fractionation. In general, enriched shergottites have lower MgO contents than intermediate or depleted shergottites and have fractionated HSE patterns (Re + Pd + Pt > Ru + Ir + Os) and more radiogenic measured 87Sr/86Sr (0.7127–0.7235) and 187Os/188Os (0.140–0.247) than intermediate or depleted shergottite meteorites (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7010–0.7132; 187Os/188Os = 0.127–0.141). Osmium isotope compositions, corrected for crystallization age, define compositions that are implausibly unradiogenic in some enriched shergottites, implying recent mobilization of Re in some samples. Filtering for the effects of alteration and high Re/Os through crystal-liquid fractionation leads to a positive correlation between age-corrected Sr and Os isotope compositions. Mixing between hypothetical martian crustal and mantle reservoirs are unable to generate the observed Sr–Os isotope compositions of shergottites, which require either distinct and discrete long-term incompatible-element depleted and enriched mantle sources, or originate from hybridized melting of deep melts with metasomatized martian lithosphere. Using MgO-regression methods, we obtain a modified estimate of the bulk silicate Mars HSE composition of (in ng g−1) 0.4 [Re], 7.4 [Pd], 9.6 [Pt], 6.2 [Ru], 3.7 [Ir], 4 [Os], and a long-term chondritic 187Os/188Os ratio (∼0.1312). This result does not permit existing models invoking high-pressure and temperature partitioning of the HSE. Instead, our estimate implies 0.6–0.7% by mass of late accretion of broadly chondritic material to Mars. Our results indicate that Mars could have accreted earlier than Earth, but that disproportional accretion of large bodies and a relative constant flux of accretion of available materials in the first 50–100 Ma of Solar System led to the broad similarity in HSE abundances between Earth and Mars.

Tian, Z, Chen H, Fegley B, Lodders K, Barrat J-A, Day JMD, Wang K.  2019.  Potassium isotopic compositions of howardite-eucrite-diogenite meteorites. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta.   https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2019.08.012   Abstract

We report new high-precision stable K isotope data for three martian meteorites, one lunar meteorite, one ordinary chondrite, four terrestrial igneous United States Geological Survey (USGS) reference materials, and twenty howardite–eucrite–diogenite [HED] meteorites. The three martian meteorites define a relatively narrow δ41K range with an average of −0.36 ± 0.12‰ (2 SD) that is slightly heavier than the Bulk Silicate Earth (BSE) K isotopic composition (−0.48 ± 0.03‰). Except for the four Northwest Africa samples which were terrestrially contaminated, all HED meteorites reveal substantial 41K enrichment compared to BSE, lunar samples, martian meteorites, and chondrites. We propose that the average δ41K (+0.36 ± 0.16‰) obtained from HED meteorites is representative of Bulk Silicate 4-Vesta. The coupled volatile depletion and heavy K isotope enrichment in 4-Vesta could be attributed to both nebula-scale processes and parent-body events. The asteroid 4-Vesta is likely to have accreted from planetary feedstocks that have been significantly volatile-depleted prior to the major phases of planetary accretion in the early Solar System, with secondary effects of K loss during accretionary growth and magma ocean degassing.

Truong, TB, Castillo PR, Hilton DR, Day JMD.  2018.  The trace element and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope geochemistry of Juan Fernandez lavas reveal variable contributions from a high-3He/4He mantle plume. Chemical Geology. 476:280-291.   10.1016/j.chemgeo.2017.11.024   Abstract

The Juan Fernandez Islands in the southeastern Pacific are an atypical linear volcanic chain that exhibits a considerable range in 3He/4He ratios (8 to 18 RA, where RA is the 3He/4He ratio of air), but limited ranges of 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd. Here we report new trace element abundance data and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope data for mafic lavas previously analyzed for their 3He/4He and He contents from the two main islands of Robinson Crusoe and Alexander Selkirk. Lavas from these islands have been previously grouped based on geochemical and petrological classification into Group I and III basalts, and Group II basanites. In general, samples have overlapping Sr-Nd-Pb isotope compositions that suggest a common, albeit slightly heterogeneous mantle source. In detail, the Group I and III tholeiitic and alkalic basalts have nearly identical incompatible trace element patterns, whereas the Group II basanites show elevated incompatible trace element abundances. Major and incompatible trace element modeling indicates that Group III basalts (3He/4He = 7.8–9.5 RA) from younger Alexander Selkirk Island were produced by the highest degree of partial melting (> 10%) of a common mantle source, followed by Group I basalts (13.6–18.0 RA) and Group II basanites (11.2–12.5 RA) from older Robinson Crusoe Island. The 206Pb/204Pb of Group I basalts and Group II basanites are slightly more radiogenic and limited in range (19.163 to 19.292) compared with those of Group III (18.939 to 19.221). The Group I and II lavas from Robinson Crusoe are consistent with an origin from the so-called focus zone (FOZO) mantle component, whereas the Alexander Selkirk basalts additionally contain contributions from a less-enriched or relatively depleted mantle component. Juan Fernandez lavas reveal limited ranges of Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes but variable 3He/4He as their parental magmas originated mainly from the FOZO component with high 3He/4He (> 9 RA) and variably polluted with a depleted component with lower 3He/4He (ca. 8 RA). Contributions from high-3He/4He mantle sources to ocean island basalts can therefore vary both spatially and temporally, over meter to kilometer lengths and hundred to million-year time scales, and may not be strongly correlated to radiogenic lithophile isotope systematics.