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Sarbadhikari, AB, Goodrich CA, Liu Y, Day JMD, Taylor LA.  2011.  Evidence for heterogeneous enriched shergottite mantle sources in Mars from olivine-hosted melt inclusions in Larkman Nunatak 06319. Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta. 75:6803-6820.   10.1016/j.gca.2011.09.001   AbstractWebsite

Larkman Nunatak (LAR) 06319 is an olivine-phyric shergottite whose olivine crystals contain abundant crystallized melt inclusions. In this study, three types of melt inclusion were distinguished, based on their occurrence and the composition of their olivine host: Type-I inclusions occur in phenocryst cores (Fo(77-73)); Type-II inclusions occur in phenocryst mantles (Fo(71-66)); Type-III inclusions occur in phenocryst rims (Fo(61-51)) and within groundmass olivine. The sizes of the melt inclusions decrease significantly from Type-I (similar to 150-250 mu m diameter) to Type-II (similar to 100 mu m diameter) to Type-III (similar to 25-75 mu m diameter). Present bulk compositions (PBC) of the crystallized melt inclusions were calculated for each of the three melt inclusion types based on average modal abundances and analyzed compositions of constituent phases. Primary trapped liquid compositions were then reconstructed by addition of olivine and adjustment of the Fe/Mg ratio to equilibrium with the host olivine (to account for crystallization of wall olivine and the effects of Fe/Mg re-equilibration). The present bulk composition of Type-I inclusions (PBC1) plots on a tie-line that passes through olivine and the LAR 06319 whole-rock composition. The parent magma composition can be reconstructed by addition of 29 mol% olivine to PBC1, and adjustment of Fe/Mg for equilibrium with olivine of Fo(77) composition. The resulting parent magma composition has a predicted crystallization sequence that is consistent with that determined from petrographic observations, and differs significantly from the whole-rock only in an accumulated olivine component (similar to 10 wt%). This is consistent with a calculation indicating that similar to 10 wt% agnesian (Fo(77-73)) olivine must be subtracted from the whole-rock to yield a melt in equilibrium with Fo(77). Thus, two independent estimates indicate that LAR 06319 contains similar to 10 wt% cumulate olivine. The rare earth element (REE) patterns of Type-I melt inclusions are similar to that of the LAR 06319 whole-rock. The REE patterns of Type-II and Type-III melt inclusions are also broadly parallel to that of the whole-rock, but at higher absolute abundances. These results are consistent with an LAR 06319 parent magma that crystallized as a closed-system, with its incompatible-element enrichment being inherited from its mantle source region. However, fractional crystallization of the reconstructed LAR 06319 parent magma cannot reproduce the major and trace element characteristics of all enriched basaltic shergottites, indicating local-to-large scale major-and trace-element variations in the mantle source of enriched shergottites. Therefore, LAR 06319 cannot be parental to the enriched basaltic shergottites. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Sarbadhikari, AB, Day JMD, Liu Y, Rumble D, Taylor LA.  2009.  Petrogenesis of olivine-phyric shergottite Larkman Nunatak 06319: Implications for enriched components in martian basalts. Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta. 73:2190-2214.   10.1016/j.gca.2009.01.012   AbstractWebsite

We report on the petrography and geochemistry of the newly discovered olivine-phyric shergottite Larkman Nunatak (LAR) 06319. The meteorite is porphyritic, consisting of megacrysts of olivine (<= 2.5 mm in length, F(O77-52)) and prismatic zoned pyroxene crystals with Wo(3)En(71) in the cores to Wo(8-30)En(23-45) at the rims. The groundmass is composed of finer grained olivine (<0.25 mm, Fo(62-46)), Fe-rich augite and pigeonite, maskelynite and minor quantities of chromite, ulvospinel, magnetite, ilmenite, phosphates, sulfides and glass. Oxygen fugacity estimates, derived from the olivine-pyroxene-spinel geo-barometer, indicate that LAR 06319 formed under more oxidizing conditions (QFM -1.7) than for depleted shergottites. The whole-rock composition of LAR 06319 is also enriched in incompatible trace elements relative to depleted shergottites, with a trace-element pattern that is nearly identical to that of olivine-phyric shergottite NWA 1068. The oxygen isotope composition of LAR 06319 (Delta(17)O = 0.29 +/- 0.03) confirms its martian origin. Olivine megacrysts in LAR 06319 are phenocrystic, with the most Mg-rich megacryst olivine being close to equilibrium with the bulk rock. A notable feature of LAR 06319 is that its olivine megacryst grains contain abundant melt inclusions hosted within the forsterite cores. These early-trapped melt inclusions have similar trace element abundances and patterns to that of the whole-rock, providing powerful evidence for closed-system magmatic behavior for LAR 06319. Calculation of the parental melt trace element composition indicates a whole-rock composition for LAR 06319 that was controlled by pigeonite and augite during the earliest stages of crystallization and by apatite in the latest stages. Crystal size distribution and spatial distribution pattern analyses of olivine indicate at least two different crystal populations. This is most simply interpreted as crystallization of megacryst olivine in magma conduits, followed by eruption and subsequent crystallization of groundmass olivine. LAR 06319 shows close affinity in mineral and whole-rock chemistry to olivine-phyric shergottite, NWA 1068 and the basaltic shergottite NWA 4468. The remarkable features of these meteorites are that they have relatively similar quantities of mafic minerals compared with olivine-phyric shergottites (e.g., Y-980459, Dho 019), but flat and elevated rare earth element patterns more consistent with the LREE-enriched basaltic shergottites (e.g., Shergotty, Los Angeles). This relationship can be interpreted as arising from partial melting of an enriched mantle source and subsequent crystal-liquid fractionation to form the enriched olivine-phyric and basaltic shergottites, or by assimilation of incompatible-element enriched martian crust. The similarity in the composition of early-trapped melt inclusions and the whole-rock for LAR 06319 indicates that any crustal assimilation must have occurred prior to crystallization of megacryst olivine, restricting such processes to the deeper portions of the crust. Thus, we favor LAR06319 forming from partial melting of an "enriched" and oxidized mantle reservoir, with fractional crystallization of the parent melt upon leaving the mantle. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Sato, KN, Andersson AJ, Day JMD, Taylor JRA, Frank MB, Jung JY, McKittrick J, Levin LA.  2018.  Response of sea urchin fitness traits to environmental gradients across the Southern California oxygen minimum zone. Frontiers in Marine Science. 5   10.3389/fmars.2018.00258   AbstractWebsite

Marine calcifiers are considered to be among the most vulnerable taxa to climate-forced environmental changes occurring on continental margins with effects hypothesized to occur on microstructural, biomechanical, and geochemical properties of carbonate structures. Natural gradients in temperature, salinity, oxygen, and pH on an upwelling margin combined with the broad depth distribution (100-1,100 m) of the pink fragile sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus (formerly Allocentrotus) fragilis, along the southern California shelf and slope provide an ideal system to evaluate potential effects of multiple climate variables on carbonate structures in situ. We measured, for the first time, trait variability across four distinct depth zones using natural gradients as analogues for species-specific implications of oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) expansion, deoxygenation and ocean acidification. Although S. fragilis may likely be tolerant of future oxygen and pH decreases predicted during the twenty-first century, we determine from adults collected across multiple depth zones that urchin size and potential reproductive fitness (gonad index) are drastically reduced in the OMZ core (450-900 m) compared to adjacent zones. Increases in porosity and mean pore size coupled with decreases in mechanical nanohardness and stiffness of the calcitic endoskeleton in individuals collected from lower pH(Total) (7.57-7.59) and lower dissolved oxygen (13-42 mu mol kg(-1)) environments suggest that S. fragilis may be potentially vulnerable to crushing predators if these conditions become more widespread in the future. In addition, elemental composition indicates that S. fragilis has a skeleton composed of the low Mg-calcite mineral phase of calcium carbonate (mean Mg/Ca = 0.02 mol mol(-1)), with Mg/Ca values measured in the lower end of values reported for sea urchins known to date. Together these findings suggest that ongoing declines in oxygen and pH will likely affect the ecology and fitness of a dominant echinoid on the California margin.

Schnare, DW, Day JMD, Norman MD, Liu Y, Taylor LA.  2008.  A laser-ablation ICP-MS study of Apollo 15 low-titanium olivine-normative and quartz-normative mare basalts. Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta. 72:2556-2572.   10.1016/j.gca.2008.02.021   AbstractWebsite

Apollo 15 low-Ti mare basalts have traditionally been subdivided into olivine- and quartz-normative basalt types, based on their different SiO(2), FeO, and TiO(2) whole-rock compositions. Previous studies have reconciled this compositional diversity by considering the olivine- and quartz-normative basalts as originating from different lunar mantle source regions. To provide new information on the compositions of Apollo 15 low-Ti mare basalt parental magmas, we report a study of major and trace-element compositions of whole rocks, pyroxenes, and other phases in the olivine-normative basalts 15016 and 15555 and quartz-normative basalts 15475 and 15499. Results show similar rare-earth-element patterns in pyroxenes from all four basalts. The estimated equilibrium parental-melt compositions from the trace-element compositions of pyroxenes are similar for 15016, 15555 and 15499. Additionally, an independent set of trace-element distribution coefficients has been determined from measured pyroxene and mesostasis compositions in sample 15499. These data suggest that fractional crystallization may be a viable alternative to compositional differences in the mantle source to explain the similar to 25% difference in whole-rock TiO(2), and corresponding differences in SiO(2) and FeO between the Apollo 15 olivine- and quartz-normative basalts. In this model, the older (similar to 3.35 Ga) quartz-normative basalts, with lower TiO(2) experienced olivine, chromite, and Cr-ulvospinel fractionation at 'crustal levels' in magma chambers or dikes, followed by limited near-surface mineral fractionation, within the lava flows. In contrast, the younger (similar to 3.25 Ga) olivine-normative basalts experienced only limited magmatic differentiation at 'crustal-levels', but extensive near-surface mineral fractionation to produce their evolved mineral compositions. A two-stage mineral-fractionation model is consistent with textural and mineralogical observations, as well as the mineral trace-element constraints developed by this study. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Spicuzza, MJ, Day JMD, Taylor LA, Valley JW.  2007.  Oxygen isotope constraints on the origin and differentiation of the Moon. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 253:254-265.   10.1016/j.epsl.2006.10.030   AbstractWebsite

We report new high-precision laser fluorination three-isotope oxygen data for lunar materials. Terrestrial silicates with a range of delta O-18 values (-0.5 to 22.9 parts per thousand) were analyzed to independently determine the slope of the terrestrial fractionation line (TFL; lambda = 0.5259 +/- 0.0008; 95% confidence level). This new TFL determination allows direct comparison of lunar oxygen isotope systematics with those of Earth. Values of Delta O-17 for Apollo 12, 15, and 17 basalts and Luna 24 soil samples average 0.01 parts per thousand and are indistinguishable from the TFL. The delta O-18 values of high- and low-Ti lunar basalts are distinct. Average whole-rock delta O-18 values for low-Ti lunar basalts from the Apollo 12 (5.72 +/- 0.06 parts per thousand) and Apollo 15 landing sites (5.65 +/- 0.12 parts per thousand) are identical within error and are markedly higher than Apollo 17 high-Ti basalts (5.46 +/- 0.11 parts per thousand). Evolved low-Ti LaPaz mare-basalt meteorite delta O-18 values (5.67 +/- 0.05 parts per thousand) are in close agreement with more primitive low-Ti Apollo 12 and 15 mare basalts. Modeling of lunar mare-basalt source composition indicates that the high- and low-Ti mare-basalt mantle reservoirs were in oxygen isotope equilibrium and that variations in delta O-18 do not result from fractional crystallization. Instead, these differences are consistent with mineralogically heterogeneous mantle sources for mare basalts, and with lunar magma ocean differentiation models that result in a thick feldspathic crust, an olivine-pyroxene-rich mantle, and late-stage ilmenite-rich zones that were convectively mixed into deeper portions of the lunar mantle. Higher average delta O-18 (WR) values of low-Ti basalts compared to terrestrial mid ocean ridge basalts (Delta=0.18 parts per thousand) suggest a possible oxygen isotopic difference between the terrestrial and lunar mantles. However, calculations of the delta O-18 of lunar mantle olivine in this study are only 0.05 parts per thousand higher than terrestrial mantle olivine. These observations may have important implications for understanding the formation of the Earth-Moon system. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Stronik, NA, Trumbull RB, Krienitz M-S, Niedermann S, Romer RL, Harris C, Day JMD.  2017.  Helium isotope evidence for a deep-seated mantle plume involved in South Atlantic breakup. Geology. 45(9):827-830.   10.1130/G39151.1   Abstract

Earth history has been punctuated by episodes of short-lived (<10 m.y.), high-volume (>106 km3) magmatism. The origin of these events and their manifestations as large igneous provinces (LIPs) with associated continental flood basalts do not fit in the current plate-tectonic paradigm. Upper-mantle processes have been invoked for some LIPs, whereas the origin of others appears to be related to plumes rising from the deep mantle. The Paraná-Etendeka LIP has remained enigmatic and highly contested in terms of plume versus upper-mantle models. Here, we provide evidence for a plume origin based on new isotopic (He, O, Sr, Nd, Pb) and trace-element data from olivine-rich dikes from Namibia. The composition of the dikes can be explained by mixing at shallow depths between a plume source with high 3He/4He (>26 RA) and ambient asthenospheric mantle, before ascent through the thinning lithosphere.